Social Worked-Examples Technique to Enhance Student Engagement in Program Visualization

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Al-Sakkaf et al.


Learning programming is among the top challenges in computer science education. A part of that, program visualization (PV) is used as a tool to overcome the high failure and drop-out rates in an introductory programming course. Nevertheless, there are rising concerns about the effectiveness of the existing PV tools following the mixed results derived from various studies. Student engagement is also considered a vital factor in building a successful PV, while it is also an important part of the learning process in general. Several techniques have been introduced to enhance PV engagement; however, student engagement with PV is still challenging. This paper employed three theories—constructivism, social constructivism and cognitive load to propose a technique for enhancing student engagement with program visualisation. The social worked-examples (SWE) technique transforms the traditional worked-example into a social activity, whereby a greater focus is placed on the collaboration role in constructing students’ knowledge. This study identified three principles that could enhance student engagement through the SWE technique: active learning, social collaboration and low-load activity.


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et al. A-S. Social Worked-Examples Technique to Enhance Student Engagement in Program Visualization. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2019Jun.20 [cited 2020Dec.1];16(2(SI):0453. Available from: