The Effect of Tharthar-Tigris Canal on the Environmental Properties of the Tigris River Northern Baghdad, Iraq


  • Osama S. Majeed Directorate of Third Karkh, Ministry of Education, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ahmed J. M. Al-Azawi Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Muhanned R. Nashaat Agricultural Research Directorate, Ministry of Science & Technology, Baghdad, Iraq



Physicochemical parameters, River confluence, Tharthar Lake, Tharthar-Tigris Canal, Tigris River


The present study is considered the first on this sector of the Tigris River after 2003. It is designed for two aims, the first is to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physicochemical parameters of Tharthar-Tigris Canal and Tigris River; the second is to explain the possible effects of canal on some environmental properties in the Tigris River. Water samples were being collected monthly. Six sampling sites were selected, two on Tharthar Canal and four along the Tigris River, one before the confluence as a control site and the others downstream the confluence with the canal. For a period from January to December 2020, nineteen physicochemical parameters were investigated including air and water temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, salinity dissolved oxygen, percent oxygen saturation, biological oxygen demand, pH, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, total alkalinity, bicarbonate, nitrate and phosphate. The results showed that air and water temperatures were close in both Tigris and canal. The waters were well aerated, slightly alkaline and over saturation was recorded several times, while biological oxygen demand values did not exceed 5 mg/L along study period. The high values of conductivity, salinity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium and sulphate ions in Tharthar water increased in the Tigris River below the confluence. Whereas, the low values of turbidity, TSS, total alkalinity and bicarbonate in the arm diluted in the main river. It has been concluded that Tharthar Canal affected the Tigris River by either increasing or diluting of the Tigris chemical components.


Download data is not yet available.


Rhoads BL. River dynamics: Geomorphology to support management [Internet].United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; April 2020. 544p. Available from:

Ishaq F, Khan A, Science E, Kangri G, Singh SB. Comparative assessment of physico-chemical conditions and Plankton diversity of River Tons and Asan in Dehradun District of Uttarakhand.Adv Appl Sci Res. 2013; 4(2): 342-355.

Sissakian VK. Genesis and Age Estimation of the Tharthar Deprition, General West Iraq.IBGM, 2011; 7(3): 47-62.

Rice SP, Greenwood MT, Joyce CB. Tributaries, sediment sources, and the longitudinal organisation of macroinvertebrate fauna along river systems. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. 2001; 58(4): 824-40.

Bolawa OP, Adedeji AA, Taiwo YF. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Abundance and Diversity of Zooplankton Fauna of Opa Reservoir, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria. Not Sci Biol. 2018; 10(2): 265-274.

Rice S, Roy A, Rhoads B. River confluences, The ecological importance of tributaries and confluences tributaries and the fluvial network. England: JohnWiley & Sons Ltd, 2008; 1st ed.Chap 11: 209-242P.

Abdullah M, Al-Ansari N, Laue J. Water resources projects in Iraq: reservoirs in the natural depressions. J Earth Sci Geotech Eng. 2019; 9(4): 137-152.

SpellmanFR, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations. [Internet].United States: CRC Press; 2020June.722P.Available from:

EPA, Dissolved Oxygen and Biochemical Oxygen Demand: In Water Monitoring and Assessment 4th ed ; 2012. Chap 5.2 [Online] Available:

Baird RB, Eaton AD, Rice EW. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 23 rd ed. Am. Public Health Assoc, AWWA. Environmental Federation Publishers, Washington, DC; 2017. Methods 2340, 2500, 4500.

Brands HJ, Tripke E. Water manual.Vulkan-Verlag, Essen. Germany, 1st ed ;1982. 320P.

Al-Ansari N. Topography and Climate of Iraq. J Earth Sci Geotech Eng.2020; 11(2): 1-13.

Al-Ansari N, Aljawad S, Adamo N, Sissakian VK, Laue J, Knutsson S. Water Quality within the Tigris and Euphrates Catchments. J Earth Sci Geotech Eng. 2018; 8(3): 95-121.

Al-Saadi HA, Al-Lami AA, Jafer MA. Limnological Char-acters of Al-Adiam River and their Effects on Tigris River-Iraq; National Scientific Conference in Environmental Pollution and Means of Protection, Baghdad, 2000 1st ed , Nov 5-6: 46-57 (In Arabic)..

Ramadhan AA, Kamal B N, Hussain T A. Evaluation of Tiger-Therthar channel and groundwater on the quality of Tigris river water at meeting point. Iraqi J Sci. 2016; 57(2): 1238-1245. (In Arabic). Available from

Nashaat MR, Muftin FS, Abbas EK, Ali EH. The Effect of Diyala Tributary on Ecological Factors of Tigris River. J Phys Conf Ser. 2020; 1664 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1664/1/012134.

Hanrahan G. Key Concepts in Environmental Chemistry[Internet]. United States: Academic Press; 2012. 365p.doi:10.5860/choice.49-3872.

Kassim TI, Sabri AW, Salman SM. The Limnological Effects of River Lesser-Zab on Tigris River, Iraq.Baghdad Sci J., 2007; 4(3): 452-457.

AbdulJabar RA, Al-Lami AA-Z, Khader RSA, Rahd AG. Effects of Some physical and chemical factors of Lower Zab water on Tigris River Effects of Some physical and chemical factors of Lower Zab water on Tigris River Abstract : Introduction : Tikrit J Pure Sci. 2014; 13(1): 132-142.

Nashaat MR, Al-BahathyIAA. Impact of Hindiya Dam on the Limnological Features of Euphrates River to the North of Babil Governorate, Iraq. Baghdad Sci. J.2021; 19(3):0447-0459.

Alazawii LH. Assessment of the effect of diyala river upon the quality of tigris river in Baghdad province by national sanitation water-quality index (NFS-WQI). Indian J Public Heal Res Dev. 2019; 10(1): 526-530.

Hassan BAA, Ibrahim TM, AL-Salman IM, Ismael AM. Impact of water mixing areas in qualitative variations of phytoplankton algae and some physiochemical characteristics of water on a section of Tigris River, Iraq. Plant Arch. 2019; 19 (1): 131-138.

Mirza NNA, Nashaat MR. An ecological assessment for interactions between the physico-chemical characteristics of Gharaf river characteristics, Southern Iraq.J Res Ecol. 2018; 6(2): 2344-2363.

Rashad S, Moneem MA, El-Chaghaby GA. Seasonal variation and correlation between the physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of nile water in a selected area in egypt (case study). Baghdad Sci J. 2020; 17(4): 1160-1168.

Pennington KL, Cech TV. Introd to Water Resour Environ Issues[Internet]. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, United Kingdom; 2009Dec. 468P. Available from

Li D, Liu S. Water quality monitoring and management: Basis, technology and case studies. Academic Press, Elsevier Inc. London; 2018. 362P.

Al-Azzawe MN, Nashaat MR, AhmedDS. Limnological characteristics of Tigris River at Baghdad city. conference on Environmental sciences 4th 5-6 /December /2012: 48-57.

Al-Ani RR,Al Obaidy AMJ, HassanFM. Multivariate analysis for evaluation the water quality of Tigris river within Baghdad city in Iraq.Iraqi J Agric Sci.2019; 50(1): 331-342.

Al-Lami AA, Kassim TI, Al-Dylymei AA. A limnological study on Tigris River, Iraq.Sci J IAEC. 1999; 1: 83-98.

Al-Lami AA, Sabri AW, Muhsen KA, Al- Dulimy AA. Ecological effects of Tharthar arm on Tigris river: A- Physical and chemical parameters. Sci J IAEC. 2001; 3(2): 122-136. (In Arabic).Available from:

Lamare RE, Singh OP. Seasonal variation in water quality of Lukha River, Meghalaya, India. Curr World Environ. 2016; 11(1): 101-101-113.

Payne JT, Millar JJ, Jackson CR, Ochs CA. Patterns of variation in diversity of the Mississippi river microbiome over 1,300 kilometers. PLoS One. 2017; 12(3): 1-18. Available from: journal.pone.0174890.

Muftin FS, Nashaat MR, Rasheed RS, Ressan KH. Impact of Al-Rasheed Power Plant Effluents on Some Ecological characteristics of Tigris River, Southern Baghdad City. J Madenat Alelem College. 2019; 11(1): 114-124. [Online] Available:

Chabuk A, Al-Madhlom Q, Al-Maliki, A, Al-Ansari N, Hussain HM, Laue J. Water quality assessment along Tigris River (Iraq) using water quality index (WQI) and GIS software. Arab. J. Geosci.2020; 13: 1-23. doi: 10.1007/s12517-020-05575-5.

Al-Dhamin AS, Mahmood MB, Rabee AM, Fadhel LZ. The Effect of AL-Tharthar-Euphrates Canal on the Some Ecolological Properties of Euphrates River. Iraqi J Sci. 2012; 53(1): 52-61.

Górski J, Dragon K, Kaczmarek PMJ. Nitrate pollution in the Warta River (Poland) between 1958 and 2016: trends and causes. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2019; 26(3): 2038-46.

EPA. Phosphorus: In Water Monitoring & Assessment. 4th ed ; 2012.Chap 5.6.[Online] Available:

Allan JD, Castillo MM, Capps KA. Stream ecology: structure and function of running waters. 3rd ed. Springer Nature,Switzerland; 2020. 485P.