Evaluation of Beta-2 Integrin and Platelets Roles in Sickle Cell Disease Pathogenicity in Basrah Governorate Patients





β integrin(CD18), pathogenicity, Platelets, Sickle cell disease


Sickle cell disease (SCD) comprises an inherited blood disorder that is life long and affects many people globally. In spite of the development in treatment, SCA is a considerable cause of mortality and morbidity. The present study tries to assess the role of leukocytes represented by β integrin(CD18) and platelets and their productivity in the pathogenicity of disease during  the steady state and crisis in comparison with the healthy as-control group, SCD patients (15) enrolled during crisis and steady state (follow up) showed a significant increase in leukocytes and platelets cells productivity during crisis when compared to the steady state and in the steady state when compared to the healthy control group . In this study, SCD pathophysiology in  steady state and crisis affected by the platelets account and leukocyte  activation triggered by inflammatory factors and reflex on the adherence and attachment between cells and blood vessel  led to vascular occlusion (VOC).


Download data is not yet available.


Chakravorty S, Williams T N. Sickle cell disease: a neglected chronic disease of increasing global health importance. Arch Disea Child. 2015; 100(1): 48-52. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2013-303773

AL-Mishry M, Mahdi N, AlSalait S A. Estimation of C-Reactive Protein, Immunoglobulin’s and Complements in SCD Patients. Int J Acad Healt Medi Res. 2018; 2 (6): 1-4. 23.

Alayash A I. Oxidative pathways in the sickle cell and beyond, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2018; 70: 78-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2017.05.009

Hidalgo A, Chang J, Jang JE, Peired AJ, Chiang EY, Frenette PS. Heterotypic interactions enabled by polarized neutrophil microdomains mediate thromboinflammatory injury. Nat Med. 2009; 15: 384–391. DOI: 10.1038/nm.1939.

Mazzone A, Ricevuti G. Leukocyte CD11/CD18 integrins: biological and clinical relevance. J Haematologica. 1995; 80(2): 161-175.

Alagbe A E, Olaniyi J A, Aworanti O W. Adult sickle cell anaemia patients in bone pain crisis have elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2018; 10(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.4084/MJHID.2018.017

Fan S T, Edgington T S. Coupling of the adhesive receptor CD11b/CD18 to functional enhancement of effector macrophage tissue factor response. J Clin Invest. 1991; 87(1):50-57. DOI: 10.1172/JCI115000

Al-Radeef M Y. Association between Allelic Variations of -174G/C Polymorphism of Interleukin-6 Gene and Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder in Iraq. Baghdad Sci J. 2020; 17(4):1145-1153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2020.17.4.1145

Mustafa M S, Abdullah R M. Detection of 16S rRNA Methylases and Co-Resistance with β-lactams among Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Iraqi Patients. Baghdad Sci J. 2019; 16(3): 580-587. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2019.16.3.0580

Amin Y, Said M A, Al-Naqshbandi A, Ghulam S. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RN) Gene Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Polymorphism Association in men Infertility in Erbil City /Kurdistan Iraq. Baghdad Sci J. 2021; 18(3): 438-444. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2021.18.3.0438

Meerschaert J, Furie M B. The adhesion molecules used by monocytes for migration across endothelium include CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, and VLA-4 on monocytes and ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and other ligands on endothelium. J Immunol. 1995; 154 (8): 4099-4112.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Kato G H, Steinberg M H, Gladwin M T. Intravascula hemolysis and the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease. J Clin Investig. 2017; 127(3): 750-760. DOI: 10.1172/JCI89741

AL-Mishry M K, Mahdi N K, AlSalait S A. Lymphocytes subset and cytokins estimationon in patients with scd at hereditary blood disease centre in basrah. J Bio Innov. 2018; 7 (4): 556-572.

Pitanga T N, Vilas-Boas W, Veloso Cerqueira B A, Seixas M O, Barbosa C G, Adorno E V. et al. Cytokine profiles in sickle cell anemia: pathways to be. unraveled. Adv Biosci Biotechnol. 2013; 4(7):6-12. DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.47A1002

Mendonça R, Silveira A, Conran N. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation. Inflam Rese. 2016; 65(9): 665–678. DOI: 10.1007/s00011-016-0955-9

Hatzipantelis E S, Pana Z D Gombakis N, Taparkou A, Tzimouli V, Kleta D, et al. Endothelial activation and inflammation biomarkers in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, Int J Hematol. 2013; 98(2): 158–163, DOI: 10.1007/s12185-013-1392-y.

McMillen MA, Huribal M, Cunningham ME, Kumar R, Sumpio BE. Endothelin-1 increases intracellular calcium in human monocytes and causes production of interleukin-6. Crit Care Med. 1995; 23(1):34-40. DOI: 10.1097/00003246-199501000-00009

Da Costa M P A, van Gils J M, Mol A, Hordijk Pand, Zwaginga J. Platelet binding to monocytes increases the adhesive properties of monocytes by up-regulating the expression and functionality of beta1 and beta2 integrins. J Leuk Biol. 2006;(79):499–507 DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0605318

Key N S , Slungaard A, Dandelet L, Nelson S C, Moertel C, Styles L A, et al. Whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity is elevated in patients with sickle cell disease. Blood. 1998; (91): 4216-4223. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V91.11.4216

Nadja P G , Alexander L S J , Geyse A S S , Thainá Cristina C , Alicia Patrine C D S , Allyson G, et al. Sickle Cell Anemia Patients Display an Intricate Cellular and Serum Biomarker Network Highlighted by TCD4+CD69+ Lymphocytes, IL-17/MIP-1β, IL-12/VEGF, and IL-10/IP-10 Axis. J Immun Rese. 2020; 1-22. DOI:10.1155/2020/4585704.

Silverstein R L, Asch A S, Nachman RL. Glycoprotein IV mediates thrombospondin-dependent platelet-monocyte and platelet-U937 cell adhesion. J Clin Invest. 1989; (84):546-55. DOI: 10.1172/JCI114197.

Belcher J D, Marker P H, Weber J P, Hebbel R P, Vercellotti G M. Activated monocytes in sickle cell disease: potential role in the activation of vascular endothelium and vaso-occlusion. Blood. 2020; 96( 7): 2451-2459.https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V96.7.2451