Potential Role of 8-Hydroxyguanosine and some Pro Inflammatory Cytokines as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Iraqi Patients





Colon cancer, 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, Interleukin-6, Tumor necrosis factor alpha


8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is considered as an indicator of the oxidative stress. Pro inflammatory cytokines are critical parts of the pathophysiological processes to which treatment can be applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate 8-OHdG and pro inflammatory cytokines concentration in colon carcinoma patients. Blood samples were taken before treatment from 50 incident cases with colon cancer (stage III) admitted for health examination at the Nanakali Hospital in Erbil city with 45 healthy samples of controls with age range between 38-69 years for both groups. All studied parameters were estimated by ELISA. Participants at this study were 95 Participants ranged in age from 38 to 69 years, 50 Participants had been newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer (without treatment) with 45 individuals were healthy used as controls. The data showed a non-significant elevation by comparing the normal participants with colorectal cancer cases for (8-OHdG) by P-value 0.054 and a significant elevation for Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by P-value 0.019 and interleukin-6 (IL6) by P-value <0.0001. While the data showed a significant depletion by P-value <0.0001 for SOD and POX. The findings of the current study reveal  that 8-OHdG refers to the local oxidative stress in colorectal cancer and TNF-α is accountable for increasing the concentrations of IL6, which is linked with inflammation process in the surrounding of  cancer cell.


Download data is not yet available.


Hussain J, Hashim I. Comparison of The Effect of Aqueous Extracts of two Plants, Origanum Vulgare L. and Fenugreek Seeds with Anticancer Drug Cis-Platin on the Growth of Cancer Cell Lines. Baghdad Sci. J. 2013;10(2).

Al-Taee MF, Al-Shaibany AWB, Al-Hadeithy MR. Evaluation for the Effect of Heat Stable Enterotoxin (a) Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on Different Cancer Cells In Vitro. Baghdad Sci J. 2010; 7:1.

Gao W, Chen Y, Yang J, Zhuo C, Huang S, Zhang H, et al. Clinical Perspectives on Liquid Biopsy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. Front genet. 2021;12:16.

Qing X, Shi D, Lv X, Wang B, Chen S, Shao Z. Prognostic significance of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in solid tumors: a meta-analysis. BMC cancer. 2019; 19(1): 1-15.

Kitagawa H, Kitajima Y, Kai K, Komukai S, Tanaka T, Koga Y, et al. Predictive value of the ratio of 8‑hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels between cancerous and normal tissues in patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5): 3041-50.

Limanu F, Labeda I, Lusikooy RE, Faruk M. The relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in plasma toward the stage and differentiation degree in colorectal cancer. Med Clin Pract. 2021; 4: 100224.

Huang X, Qin S, Liu Y, Tao L, Jiang H. Associations of tumor necrosis factor-α polymorphisms with the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. Biosci Rep. 2019; 39(1).

Li J, Huang L, Zhao H, Yan Y, Lu J. The role of interleukins in colorectal cancer. Int J Biol Sci. 2020; 16(13): 2323.

Mauer J, Denson JL, Brüning JC. Versatile functions for IL-6 in metabolism and cancer. Trends Immunol. 2015;36(2):92-101.

Sun Q, Shang Y, Sun F, Dong X, Niu J, Li F. Interleukin-6 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion through integrin β6 upregulation in colorectal cancer. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020; (2): 1-13.

Irawan B, Labeda I, Lusikooy RE, Sampetoding S, Kusuma MI, Uwuratuw JA, et al. Association of superoxide dismutase enzyme with staging and grade of differentiation colorectal cancer: a cross-sectional study. Ann Med Surg. 2020; 58: 194-99.

O'Flaherty C. Peroxiredoxins: hidden players in the antioxidant defence of human spermatozoa. Basic Clin Androl. 2014; 24(1): 1-10.

Nakabeppu Y. Cellular levels of 8-oxoguanine in either DNA or the nucleotide pool play pivotal roles in carcinogenesis and survival of cancer cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15(7):12543-57.

Sova H, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Puistola U, Kauppila S, Karihtala P. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine: a new potential independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010; 102(6): 1018-23.

Kryston TB, Georgiev AB, Pissis P, Georgakilas AG. Role of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human carcinogenesis. Mutat Res-Fund Mol M. 2011; 711(1-2): 193-201.

Płachetka A, Adamek B, Strzelczyk JK, Krakowczyk Ł, Migula P, Nowak P, et al. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in colorectal adenocarcinoma–is it a result of oxidative stress? Med. Sci. Monit.: Int J Clin Exp Med. 2013;19:690.

Sato T, Takeda H, Otake S, Yokozawa J, Nishise S, Fujishima S, et al. Increased plasma levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine are associated with development of colorectal tumors. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010:1004220026-26.

Pakdemirli A, Kocal GC. TNF-alpha Induces Pro-Inflammatory Factors in Colorectal Cancer Microenvironment. Med Sci. Discov. 2020; 7(4): 466-69.

Jager A, Sleijfer S, van der Rijt C. The pathogenesis of cancer related fatigue: could increased activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines be the common denominator? Eur J Cancer. 2008; 44(2): 175-81.

Kim HW, Lee J-c, Paik K-h, Kang J, Kim J, Hwang J-H. Serum interleukin-6 is associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression pattern. Medicine. 2017; 96(5).

Sun X, Zhang J, Wang Z, Ji W, Tian R, Zhang F, et al. Shp2 plays a critical role in IL-6-induced EMT in breast cancer cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(2): 395.

Lee SH, Hong HS, Liu ZX, Kim RH, Kang MK, Park N-H, et al. TNFα enhances cancer stem cell-like phenotype via Notch-Hes1 activation in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 424(1): 58-64.

Sahibzada HA, Khurshid Z, Khan RS, Naseem M, Siddique KM, Mali M, et al. Salivary IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α as potential diagnostic biomarkers for oral cancer. Diagnostics. 2017; 7(2): 21.

Pacholczyk M, Czernicki J, Ferenc T. The Effect of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) on Induction of Skin Cancer. Med Pr . 2016; 67(2): 255-67.

Glorieux C, Dejeans N, Sid B, Beck R, Calderon PB, Verrax J. Catalase overexpression in mammary cancer cells leads to a less aggressive phenotype and an altered response to chemotherapy. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2011;82(10):1384-90.

Brigelius-Flohé R, Maiorino M. Glutathione peroxidases. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj . 2013;1830(5):3289-303.