Antibacterial Activity of Three Algal Genera against some Pathogenic Bacteria


  • Janan Jabbar Toma Environmental Sciences and Health Department, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Farhad Hassan Aziz Environmental Sciences and Health Department, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq



Activity, Algae, Antibacterial, Genera, Pathogenic


In the current study, three types of algae namely Tetradesmus nygaardi (MZ801740), Scenedesmus quadricauda (MZ801741) and Coelastrella sp (MZ801742) were extracted by 95% ethanol and hexane against two types of gram positive and two types of gram negative bacteria by wells diffusion methods. Eleven concentrations from the extract of algae (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/ml) were utilized. It was noticed that ethanolic extraction was more effective than hexane in Scenedesmus quadricauda than the two other mentioned algal species against all pathogenic bacteria, Acintobacter baumanii (ATCC: 19606), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC: 13883) Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC: 29212) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC: 14028). In addition to that, extraction of Tetradesmus nygaardi by hexane was more effective than ethanol against all studied pathogenic bacteria. Extract of Coelastrella sp by Ethanol showed weak effect against all pathogenic bacteria compared with the other types of algae. Many chemical compounds which possess antibacterial activities were obtained through analyzing the extraction of algae by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)


Download data is not yet available.


Leggett HC, Cornwallis CK, Buckling A, West SA. Growth rate, transmission mode and virulence in human pathogens. Philos Trans R Soc B. 2017; 372: 20160094: 1-8.

Ahmed IA, Aljondi AI, Alabed AAA, Al-Mahdi AY, Abdsalam R. Isolation, Screening and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Pseudomonas species from KelanaJaya Lake Soilin Selangor Malaysia. Baghdad Sci J. 2021; 18(3): 455-61.

Alghanmi HA, Omran AS. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of two algae species against some pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospital patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020; 14: 383-94.

Fair RJ, Tor Y. Antibiotics and bacterial resistance in the 21st century. Perspect. Medicinal Chem. 2014; 6: 25-64.

Mgbeahuruike EE, Stålnacke M, Vuorela H. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of Commercial Piperine and Piperlongumine in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobials. Antibiotics (Basel). 2019; 8(55): 2-12.

Falaise C, François C, Travers M, Morga B, Haure J, Tremblay R, et al. Antimicrobial Compounds from Eukaryotic Microalgae against Human Pathogens and Diseases in Aquaculture. Marine Drugs. 2016; 14(9): 159-68.

Khan MI, Shin JH, Kim JD. The promising future of microalgae: current status, challenges, and optimization of a sustainable and renewable industry for biofuels, feed, and other products. Microb Cell Fact. 2018; 17: 36-47.

Sukla L B, Subudhi E and Pradhan E . The Role of Microalgae in Wastewater Treatment. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019.

John DM, Braid RB, Brook AJ. The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles: An Identification Guide to Freshwater and Trrestrial Algae. 2nd Edition. Published by the Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. 2011: 920pp.

Wehr JD, Sheath RG, Kociolek JP. Freshwater Algae of North America : Ecology and Classification. Pulished by Academic press in an import Elsevier. 2015: 1028.

Hussein HJ, Naji SS, Al-Khafaji NMS. Antibacterial properties of the Chlorella vulgaris isolated from polluted water in Iraq. J Pharm Sci Res . 2018; 10(10): 2457-60.

Tredici MR. Microalgae: Photobioreactors In: Richmond, A. (Ed). Handbook of Microalgal Culture: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 2004 Part 1. Chap 3. P40-83.

Elnabris KJ, Elmanama AA, Chihadeh WN. Antibacterial activity of four marine seaweeds collected from the coast of Gaza Strip, Palestine. Mesopot J Mar Sci. 2013; 28: 81-92.

Hassan IKA, Tuama AA, Kareem KA. Antibacterial Activity of Crude Extracts of Spirulina Platensis Against Some Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Different Sites on Human Body. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2020; 14(1): 621-5.

Ismaeil AS, Saleh FA. Sumac (Rhus coriaria L) as Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2019; 3(14): 2397-2404.

Li Y, Naghdi FG, Garg S, Adarme-Vega TC, Thurecht KJ, Ghafor WA, et al. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research. Microb Cell Fact. 2014; 13(14): 2-9.

White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Tayler J. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics.PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego, Calif. 1990; Chap 4: P315-322.

Prarthana J, Maruthi K. Fresh Water Algae as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds for Aquaculture and Significance of Solvent System in Extraction of Antimicrobials. Asian J Sci Res. 2019; 12: 18-28.

Hassan FM, Al-Kubaisi AA, Talib AH, Taylor WD, Abdulah DS. Phytoplankton primary production in southern Iraqi marshes after restoration. Baghdad Sci J. 2011; 18(1): 519-30.

Ali HA. Euglenoids in Haqlan Springs and Euphrates River at Hadithah City, Western Iraq. Biol Appl Environ Res. 2021; 5(1): 114-29.

El-Sheekh MM, Daboor SM, Swelim MA, Mohamed ST. Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance from Spirulina platensis. Iran J Microbiol. 2014; 6(2): 112-9.

Usharani G, Srinivasan G, Sivasakthi S, Saranraj P. Antimicrobial Activity of Spirulina platensis Solvent Extracts Against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi. Advan Biol Res. 2015; 9(5): 292-8.

Syed S, Arasu A, Ponnuswamy I. The Uses of Chlorella Vulgaris as Antimicrobial Agent and as a Diet: the Presence of Bio-active Compounds which caters the Vitamins, Minerals in General. Int J Bio-Sci Bio-Techno. 2015;7(1):p185-90.

Marrez DA, Naguib MM, Sultan YY, Higazy AM. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of Scenedesmus obliquus metabolites. Heliyon. 2019; 5(3): 1-22.

Martínez-Francés E, Escudero-Oñate C. Cyanobacteria and microalgae in the production of valuable bioactive compounds. Microb. Biotechnol. 2018;5:p105-20.

Patocka J, Kuca K. Biologically active Alcohol: Cyclic Alcohol. Mil Med Sci Lett. 2013; 82(4): 162-71.

Tiawan M, Kakar P. Plant derived antioxidants-Geraniol and Camphene protect rat alveolar macrophages against t-BHP induced oxidative stress. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:p295-301.

Kamoutsis C, Fesatidou M, Petrou A, Geronikaki A, Poroikov V, Ivanov M, et al. Triazolo Based-Thiadiazole Derivatives. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking Studies. Antibiotics. 2021; 10: 2-21.

Alizadeh1 M, Jalal M, Hamed K, Saber A, Kheirouri S, Tabrizi FPF, et al. Recent Updates on Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Furan Natural Derivatives. J Inflamm Res. 2020; 13: 451-63.