Spectrophotometric Method Combined with HPLC for Bisphenol F Determination in Plastic Bottled Water and Thermal Paper


  • Narjes Mohanad Habib Chemistry Department, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Maha Al-Tameemi Chemistry Department, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1728-1545
  • Mohanad Lateef Tofah Department of Research and Development in The State Company for Drugs Industry and Medical Appliance, Samarra, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8617-7912
  • Nahlah Kadhim Salman Department of Biology, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7418-359X
  • Hawraa Mahmood Abdulkareem Chemistry Department, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq




Bisphenol F; Diazotization-Coupling Reaction; HPLC; Metoclopramide; Spectrophotometric Technique


Based on the diazotization-coupling reaction, a new, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determining of a trace amount of (BPF) is presented in this paper. Diazotized metoclopramide reagent react with bisphenol F produces an orange azo-compound with a maximum absorbance at 461 nm in alkaline solution. The experimental parameters were optimized such as type of alkaline medium, concentration of NaOH, diazotized metoclopramide amount, order additions, reaction time, temperature, and effect of organic solvents to achieve the optimal performance for the proposed method. The absorbance increased linearly with increasing bisphenol F concentration in the range of 0.5-10 μg mL-1 under ideal conditions, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9931 and a detection limit of 0.15 μg mL-1. The effect of different temperatures and different extraction time was studied on the leaching out and the data indicates that as time and temperature rising, the concentration of BPF leached out of all thermal papers increased. To confirm that extracts from thermal papers contained BPF, samples containing the analytic were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV detector) analysis. The analysis was carried out on a C18 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/water (55/45v:v), and the detection was conducted spectrophotometrically at 230 nm. The retention time of standard BPF was determined to be 5.649 min and the peak eluting time for most thermal papers extract was at 5.6 minutes, demonstrating that BPF was present in the thermal papers. The method was applied to quantify the proposed analyses in a variety of samples with excellent results.


Download data is not yet available.


Kabir E R, Rahman M S, Rahman I. A review on endocrine disruptors and their possible impacts on human health. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2015; 40(1): 241-258.

Vela-Soria F, Ballesteros O, Zafra-Gómez A, Ballesteros LM, Navalón A. UHPLC–MS/MS method for the determination of bisphenol A and its chlorinated derivatives, bisphenol S, parabens, and benzophenones in human urine samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014; 406(15): 773-3785.

Thoene M, Rytel L, Nowicka N, Wojtkiewicz J. The state of bisphenol research in the lesser developed countries of the EU: a mini-review. Toxicol Res. 2018; 7(3): 371-380.

Alfarhani BF, Al-Tameemi M, Fadhel AA, Hammza RA, Kadhem MI. Endocrine disrupting Bisphenol A detection in different water samples in Iraq. J Phys Conf Ser. 2019; 1294(5): 052045.

Liao C, Kannan K A. survey of bisphenol A and other bisphenol analogues in foodstuffs from nine cities in China. Food Addit Contam. Part A. 2014; 31(2): 319-329.

Putzeys E, Cokic SM, Chong H, Smet M, Vanoirbeek J, Godderis, L, et al. Simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A based compounds and other monomers leaching from resin‐based dental materials by UHPLC–MS/MS. J Sep Sci. 2017; 40(5): 1063-1075.

Adeel M, Song X, Wang Y, Francis D, Yang Y. Environmental impact of estrogens on human, animal and plant life: a critical review. Environ Int. 2017; 99: 107-119.

Apau J, Acheampong A, Adua E. Exposure to bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and bisphenol S can result in obesity in human body. Cogent Chem. 2018; 4(1): 1506601.

Mendy A, Salo PM, Wilkerson J, Feinstein L, Ferguson KK, Fessler MB, et al. Association of urinary levels of bisphenols F and S used as bisphenol A substitutes with asthma and hay fever outcomes. Environ Res. 2020; 183: 108944.

Lee S, Liao C, Song GJ, Ra K, Kannan K Moon, H.B. Emission of bisphenol analogues including bisphenol A and bisphenol F from wastewater treatment plants in Korea. Chemosphere.2015; 119: 1000-1006.

Chen MY, Ike M, Fujita M. Acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and estrogenicity of bisphenol‐A and other bisphenols. Environ Toxicol. 2002; 17(1): 80-86.

Ali SMA, Elamin MB, Omar MMA, Ahmed, A. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenols in Plastic Packed Dry Fruits Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent. Curr Anal Chem. 2021; 17:1-7.

Rochester JR, Bolden AL. Bisphenol S and F: a systematic review and comparison of the hormonal activity of bisphenol A substitutes. Environ Health Perspect. 2015; 123(7): 643-650.

Castro B, Sánchez P, Torres JM, Ortega E. Bisphenol A, bisphenol F and bisphenol S affect differently 5α-reductase expression and dopamine–serotonin systems in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile female rats. Environ Res. 2015; 142: 281-287.

Rosenmai AK, Dybdahl M, Pedersen M, Alice van Vugt-Lussenburg, BM, Wedebye EB, Taxvig C, Vinggaard AM. Are structural analogues to bisphenol a safe alternatives? Toxicol Sci. 2014; 139(1): 35-47.

Frankowski R, Zgoła-Grześkowiak A, Grześkowiak T, Sojka K. The presence of bisphenol A in the thermal paper in the face of changing European regulations–A comparative global research. Environ Pollut .2020; 265: 114879.

Gallimberti M, Rocha BA, Souza VC, Campiglia AD, Barbosa F. Determination of Bisphenol A in Paper Products by Synchronous Fluorescence Spectoscopy and Estimation of Daily Exposure. J Braz Chem Soc. 2020; 31: 2146-2154.

Chen D, Kannan K, Tan H, Zheng Z, Feng YL, Wu Y, Widelka M. Bisphenol analogues other than BPA: environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity a review. Environ Sci Technol. 2016; 50(11): 5438-5453.

Goldinger DM, Demierre AL, Zoller O, Rupp H, Reinhard H, Magnin R, et al. Endocrine activity of alternatives to BPA found in thermal paper in Switzerland. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.2015; 71(3): 453-462.

Jurek A, Leitner E. Analytical determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol analogues in paper products by GC-MS/MS. Food Addit Contam. Part A. 2017; 34(7): 1225-1238.

Rocha BA, da Costa BRB, de Albuquerque NCP, de Oliveira ARM, Souza JMO, Al-Tameemi M , et al.. A fast method for bisphenol A and six analogues (S, F, Z, P, AF, AP) determination in urine samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta. 2016; 154: 511-519.

Rocha BA, Azevedo LF, Gallimberti M, Campiglia AD, Barbosa Jr F. High levels of bisphenol A and bisphenol S in Brazilian thermal paper receipts and estimation of daily exposure. J Toxicol Environ Part A. 2015; 78(18): 1181-1188.

Yang Y, Lu L, Zhang J, Yang Y, Wu Y, Shao B. Simultaneous determination of seven bisphenols in environmental water and solid samples by liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2014; 13289: 26-34.

Heffernan AL, Thompson K, Eaglesham G, Vijayasarathy S, Mueller JF, Sly PD, et al. Rapid, automated online SPE-LC-QTRAP-MS/MS method for the simultaneous sanalysis of 14 phthalates metabolites and 5 bisphenol analogues in human urine. Talanta. 2016; 151: 224–233.

Jurek A, Leitner E. Analytical determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol analogues in paper products by LC-MS/MS. Food Addit Contam. Part A. 2018; 35(11): 2256-2269.

Siddique S, Zhang G, Coleman K, Kubwabo C. Investigation of the migration of bisphenols from baby bottles and sippy cups. Curr. Res.Food Sci. 2021; 4: 619-626.

Hadi H, Abdulkareem HM. Determination and Extraction of Carbofuran Pesticide in Different Matrices using Cloud Point Extraction Method. Curr. Anal. Chem. 2020; 16(3): 256-262.

Abdulkareem H M, Al-Tameemi M, Ibraheem I H, Hadi M S. Surfactant cloud point extraction as a procedure of preconcentrating for metoclopramide determination using spectro analytical technique. Baghdad Sci. J. 2020; 17(1): 57-65.

Al-Abachi, M.Q, Abed, S.S. Spectrophotometric determination of Phenylephrine hydrochloride and Salbutamol sulphate drugs in pharmaceutical preparations using diazotized Metoclopramide hydrochloride. Baghdad Sci. J. 2015; 12, (1):167-177.

Benecyo, J.E. Simultaneous Determination of BPA and BPS Using UV/Vis Spectrophotometry and HPLC. M.S.c [Thesis]: Ouachita Baptist University; 2016. Available from: https://scholarlycommons.obu.edu/honors_theses/233

Odera, P.A. Determination of Bisphenol a Bpa in Thermal Papers, Selected Soil Samples and the Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Its Concentration. M.S.c [Thesis]: University of Nairobi; 2019. Available from: http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/106703

Abdulwahhab S M. spectrophotometric determination and cloud point extraction of some drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical preparation. M.S.c [Thesis]: University of Baghdad; 2017.

Behera, P.K., Xess, A, Sahu, S, Solvent effects on the electronic spectra of some heterocyclic azo dyes. Bull Korean Chem Soc. 2014; 35(2): 610-616.

Guo Y, Wang L, Kannan K. Effect of storage time and temperature on levels of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine. Adv Environ Res. 2013; 2(1): 9-17.

Omer L, Ahmed H, Elbashir A. Determination of bisphenol A in exposed bottled water samples to direct sun light using multi walled carbon nanotubes as solid phase extraction sorbent. J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol. 2016; 8(7): 51-57.

Russo G, Barbato F, Cardone E, Fattore M, Albrizio S, Grumetto L. Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S release in milk under household conditions from baby bottles marketed in Italy. J. Environ. Sci. Health B. 2018; 53(2): 116-120.

Xie Y, Bao Y, Wang H, Cheng Y, Qian H, Yao W. Release of bisphenols from can coatings into canned beer in China market. J. Sci. Food Agric..2015; 95(4): 64-770.