This is a preview and has not been published.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Pyridine and Pyrimidine Derivatives and Studying Their Biological Activities


  • Israa R. A. Al-Hussein Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq.
  • Zainab A. M. Al-Shuhaib Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq.



Anti-bacterial, Anti-parasitic, Cyanopyridine, cells (HepG2, MCF-7), Pyrimidine


Heterocyclic systems, which are essential in medicinal chemistry due to their promising cytotoxic activity, are one of the most important families of organic molecules found in nature or produced in the laboratory. As a result of coupling N-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-oxo-butanamide (3) using thiourea, indole-3-carboxaldehyde, or piperonal, the pyrimidine derivatives (5a and 5b) were produced. Furthermore, pyrimidine 9 was synthesized by reacting thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde with ethyl cyanoacetate and urea with potassium carbonate as a catalyst. The chalcones 11a and 11b were synthesized by reacting equal molar quantities of 1-naphthaldehyde and 2-quinoline carboxaldehyde with 4-Bromo acetophenone and 4- fluoro acetophenone respectively. Pyrimidine 13 was synthesized by reacting chalcone 11a with guanidine hydrochloride in the presence of potassium hydroxide. Pyridine derivative 14 was prepared from the reaction of chalcone 11b with ethyl cyanoacetate and ammonium acetate in glacial acetic acid. In addition, the reaction of 4-methyl benzaldehyde and 4-fluoro acetophenone with ethyl cyanoacetate and ammonium acetate in n-butanol gave pyridine derivative 16. Spectral investigations (FT-IR, 1H, and 13C-NMR) and EI-MS spectra were used to determine the structure of the prepared compounds. The synthesized derivatives were tested in vitro for their potential cytotoxicity against two different human cancer cell types, MCF-7 (breast cancer cell) or HepG2 (liver cancer cell). Compounds 5a and 14 displayed cytotoxic activity versus HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 43.84 and 57.14 µg /mL, respectively. Furthermore, the pyridine compound 14 demonstrated cytotoxic action versus MCF-7 with an IC50 value of 50.84 g/mL. The antibacterial and anti-parasitic properties of the synthesized derivatives have also been described.


Download data is not yet available.


Ansar R.S, Mazahar F, Satpute R.H, Syed A. Overview on Nitrogen containing compounds and their assessment based on ‘International Regulatory Standards’. J. Drug Deliv Ther. 2018; 8(6-s):424-428.

Nagaraju K, Lalitha G, Suresh M, Kranthi KG, Sreekantha BJ. A Review on Recent Advances in Nitrogen Containing Molecules and Their Biological Applications. Molecules. 2020; 25: 1909.

Mangoud MM, Mohamed ZH, Eman AE. Design and Synthesis of Novel Pyrazoles, Pyrazolines, and Pyridines from Chalcone Derivatives with Evaluation of Their In Vitro Anticancer Activity Against T-47D and UACC-257 Cell Lines. Egypt J. Chem. 2020; 63(12): 5203-5218.

Mohammed KA, Noha R, Al-Shorbagy MY, Manal RM, Mohammed MI, Salwa E. Design, Synthesis and Screening of 4, 6-Diaryl Pyridine and Pyrimidine Derivatives As Potential Cytotoxic Molecules. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2018; 66(10): 939–952; DOI:10.1248/cpb.c18-00269.

Ali K A A. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Pyrazoline and Isoxazoline Derivatives as Antibacterial Agents. Baghdad Sci J. 2016;13(3): 568-577.

Abdel-Amir M F, Hala M S. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Oxazine, Thiazine and Pyrazol Derivatives. Baghdad Sci J. 2016; 13: 244-252.

Sanjiv K, Balasubramanian N. Therapeutic potential of heterocyclic pyrimidine scaffolds. Chem. Cent J. 2018; 12: 38.

Ajmal R B, Rajendra S D, Aabid H S, Gowhar A N, Israr Ul H. Computational analysis for antimicrobial active pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives on the basis of theoretical and experimental ground. J. Assoc. Arab Univ. Basic Appl. Sci. 2016; 20: 19–25.

Ellen JBD, Jos HB. Intracellular Pharmacokinetics of Pyrimidine Analogues used in Oncology and the Correlation with Drug Action. Clin. Pharm. 2020; 59: 1521–1550.

Eswara R G, Srinivasa B P, Sai K O, Sharmila R, Maruthi Kumar S S S. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Pyrimidines from Chalcones. Int. J. Rec. Sci. Res. 2016; 7(4): 10238-10241.

Ruaa WA, Hutham MYA, Israa NK, Ahmed AJA. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of some new pyrimidine derivatives from chalcone derivatives. Drug Invent Today. 2019; 11 (7): 1732-1739.

Biswa MS, Mullangi R., Panda J, Sahoo B. Green Expedient Synthesis of Pyrimidine Derivatives via Chalcones and Evaluation of their Anthelmintic Activity. Indian J. Pharm. Educ. Res. 2017; 51: 5700-5706.

Mangoud MM, Mohamed ZH, Eman AE. Design and Synthesis of Novel Pyrazoles, Pyrazolines, and Pyridines from Chalcone Derivatives with Evaluation of Their In Vitro Anticancer Activity Against T-47D and UACC-257 Cell Lines. Egypt J. Chem. 2020; 63: 5203 – 5218.

Tehreem T, Muhammad A, Muhammad S, Muhammad R, Mirza IS, Katarzyna KM, Mariusz M. Pyridine Scaffolds, Phenols and Derivatives of Azo Moiety: Current Therapeutic Perspectives. Molecules. 2021; 26(16): 4872.

Rehab S, Marwa FH, Omkulthom M A, Najla A. Discovery of Novel 3-Cyanopyridines as Survivin Modulators and Apoptosis Inducers. Molecules. 2020; 25(21): 4892.

Pareshkumar UP, Vipul PG, Purohitb DM, Patoliaa VN. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some new cyano pyridine derivatives. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2015; 7(1): 182-186.

Vladimir LG, Tatiana MZ, Maksim VD. Sodium hydrogen sulfate as a catalyst for the synthesis of N,4-diaryl-6-methyl-1-methyl(phenyl)-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxamides via the Biginelli reaction. Chem. Heterocycl Compd. 2018; 54(2): 177–182.

Giovanna B, Fiona C, Riccardo DN, Nicole M. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones via a Three-Component Biginelli Reaction. Molecules. 2021; 26: 3753.

Eswara RG, Srinivasa BP, Sai KO, Sharmila R, Maruthi KSSS. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Pyrimidines from Chalcones. Int. J. Rec. Sci. Res. 2016; 7(4): 10238-10241.

Cynthia BS. Updating Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Methods, Clin Lab Sci. 2012; 25(4): 233-239.

Mounyr B, Moulay S, Saad KI. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. J. Pharm. Anal. 2016; 6: 71-79.

Ali T, Fatemeh G, John H, Abdolhossein D, Zohreh S. Silybum marianum ethanolic extract: in vitro effects on protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus G1 strain with emphasis on other Iranian medicinal plants. Trop Med Health. 2021; 49: 71.

Sumbal H, Sadaf N, Naveeda AQ, Riaz U, Hafiz MM, Abdelaaty AS. Phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and Anti-protoscolices potential of ethanol extracts of selected plants species against Echinococcus granulosus: In-vitro study. Open Chem. 2019; 17: 874–883.

Naglaa MA, Mahmoud MY, Moustafa KS, Ahmed MS. Design, Synthesis, Molecular Modeling and Antitumor Evaluation of Novel Indolyl-Pyrimidine Derivatives with EGFR Inhibitory Activity Molecules. 2021; 26: 1838.

Beata T, Benita W, Żaneta C, Aneta CN, Elżbieta G, Anna JK. Novel Pyrimidine Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021; 22(8): 3825.

Senthilraja P, Kathiresan K. In vitro cytotoxicity MTT assay in Vero, HepG2 and MCF -7 cell lines study of Marine Yeast. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 2015; 5 (03): 080-084.

Ebtesam SA, Nouf AA, Mai MA, Shaza MA, Ali AE, Nida NF. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by Anethum graveolens L. essential oil in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Saudi Pharm. J. 2019; 27(7): 1053-1060.

Abdel HMH, Abu-Bakr AME, Ahmed AME, Ahmed AK. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some New Pyrimidine, Pyridine and Thiophene Derivatives. Drug Des Int Prop Int J. 2021; 4(1): 446-454.