This is a preview and has not been published.

Recent advances in the Biosynthesis of Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles and their Biological Applications


  • Salam S Alsharari Biology Department, College of Science, Jouf University, P.O. Box 72341, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
  • Muneefah A. Alenezi Biology Department, College of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia.
  • Mona S. Al Tami Department of Biology, College of Science, Qassim University, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia.
  • Mohammed Soliman National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.



Applications, Characterization, Green synthesis, Nanotechnology, ZrO2NPs


A critical milestone in nano-biotechnology is establishing reliable and ecological friendly methods for fabricating metal oxide NPs. Because of their great biodegradable, electrical, mechanical, and optical qualities, zirconia NPs (ZrO2NPs) attract much interest among all zirconia NPs (ZrO2NPs). Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) has piqued the interest of researchers throughout the world, particularly since the development of methods for the manufacture of nano-sized particles. An extensive study into the creation of nanoparticles utilizing various synthetic techniques and their potential uses has been stimulated by their high luminous efficiency, wide bandgap, and high exciton binding energy. Zirconium dioxide nanoparticles may be used as antimicrobial and anticancer agents in food packaging. In response to the growing interest in nano ZrO2, researchers invented and developed methods for synthesizing nanoparticles. ZrO2 nanocomposites with various morphologies have recently been created using biological (green chemistry) methods. Microbes and plants both contribute to the production of zirconia in the laboratory. Capping and stabilizing agents are provided by the biomolecules found in plant extracts, whereas microorganisms provide enzymes as capping and stabilizing agents (intracellular or extracellular). It is possible to analyze the nanoparticles produced using a variety of analytical approaches, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). When applied to bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungi, ZrO2NPs show promising antibacterial capabilities. Normal and malignant cells are sensitive to ZrO2 nanoparticles, which can be explained by the generation of reactive oxygen (ROS). This work discusses and describes many ways of producing ZrO2 nanoparticles, their properties, and various application possibilities.


Download data is not yet available.


Shaimaa OH, Sumod Abdul kadhem S, Shurooq FH, Shatha MA. Antimicrobial Effect of Eco- Friendly Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis by Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) on Gram-Negative Biofilm-Forming Bacteria. Baghdad Sci J. 2021; 18(4): 1149-1156.

Amal KA, Nada KA, Ruaa MA, Lamia KA. Histological and Biochemical Parameters Follow-up in Experimental rats Administrated dexamethasone and Treated with Green Synthesis Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using (Camillia sciences) Extracts. Baghdad Sci J. 2020;17:663-669.

Ameen F, Dawoud T, AlNadhari S. Ecofriendly and low-cost synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from Acremoniumpotronii for the photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes. Environ Res. 2021; 202: 111700.

Li K, Kou H, Rao J, Liu C, Ning C. Fabrication of enamel-like structure on polymer-infiltrated zirconia ceramics. Dental Mater. 2021; 37(4): e245-e255.

Qunbo F, Fuchi W, Huiling Z, Feng Z. Study of ZrO2 phase structure and electronic properties. Mole Simul. 2008; 34: 1099–1103.

Gharpure S, Akash A, Ankamwar B. A Review on Antimicrobial Properties of Metal Nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotech. 2020; 20: 3303–3339.

Patil NA, Kandasubramanian B. Biological and mechanical enhancement of zirconium dioxide for medical applications. Ceram Inter. 2020; 46: 4041-4057.

Veved A, Ejuh GW, Djongyang N. Study of the optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of ZrO2 doped PVDF from quantum chemistry calculations. Chinese J Phy. 2020; 63: 213-219.

Asma MA. Morphological, structural, microstructural and antibacterial features of silver-doped zirconia/hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications. Appl Phy A. 2021; 127: 416.

Elbasuney S, Gobara M, Zoriany M, Maraden A, Naeem I. The significant role of stabilized colloidal ZrO2 nanoparticles for corrosion protection of AA2024. Envi Nanotech Mon Mana. 2019; 12: 100242.

Karpov IV, Ushakov AV, Goncharova EA, Bachurina EP, Shaikhadinov AA. Physicochemical Properties of Zirconium Oxide Nanopowder Synthesized in Low-Pressure Arc Discharge Plasma. Key Eng Mater. 2020; 854: 51-56.

Anandan K, Rajesh K, Gayathri K, Sharma SV, Hussain SGM, Rajendran V. Effects of rare earth, transition and post transition metal ions on structural and optical properties and photocatalytic activities of zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles synthesized via the facile precipitation process. Physic E. 2020; 124: 114342.

Raj S, Hattori M, Ozawa M. Ag-doped ZrO2 Nanoparticles Prepared by Hydrothermal Method for Efficient Diesel Soot Oxidation. Mater Letter. 2019; 234: 205-207.

Nawale AB, Kanhe NS, Bhoraskar SV, Mathe VL, Das AK. Influence of crystalline phase and defects in the ZrO2 nanoparticles synthesized by thermal plasma route on its photocatalytic properties. Mater Res Bull. 2012; 47: 3432-3439.

Shaik MR, Alam M, Adil SF, Kuniyil M, Al-Warthan A, Siddiqui MRH. et al. Solvothermal Preparation and Electrochemical Characterization of Cubic ZrO2 Nanoparticles/Highly Reduced Graphene (HRG) based Nanocomposites. Mater. 2019; 12: 711.

Gibot P, Quesnay F, Nicollet C, Laffont L, Schnell F, Mory J, et al. Detonation synthesis of ZrO2 by means of an ammonium nitrate-based explosive emulsion. Solid State Sci. 2020; 108: 106405.

Imrana M, Riaza S, Sanaullaha I, Khan U, Sabric AN, Naseem S. Microwave assisted synthesis and antimicrobial activity of Fe3O4-doped ZrO2nanoparticles.Ceram Inter. 2019; 45: 10106-10113.

Wang Y, Zhou X, Liang Z, Jin H. Characterization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Electrochemical Deposition of Ni-Co-ZrO2. Coatings. 2018; 8: 211.

Siva Sankar S, Lakshman Kumar D. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Givotia moluccana leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity. Mater Lett. 2018; 226: 47–51.

Singh J, Dutta T, Kim K, Rawat M, Samddar P, Kumar P. Green synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: applications for environmental remediation. J Nanobiotech. 2018; 16: 84.

Akintelu SA, Folorunso AS. A Review on Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Plant Extracts and Its Biomedical Applications. Bio Nano Sci. 2020; 10: 848–863.

MdIshak NA I, Kamarudin SK, Timmiati SN. Green synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles via plant extracts: an overview. Mater Res Exp. 2019; 6: 112004.

Jeevanandam J, Chan YS, Danquah MK. Biosynthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. Chem Bio Eng Rev. 2016; 3: 55–67.

Vijayakumar S, Mahadevan S, Arulmozhia P, Sriram S, Praseeth PK. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Atalantiamonophylla leaf extracts: Characterization and antimicrobial analysis. Mater Sci Sem Process. 2018; 82: 39-45.

Hana S, Fuad A, Sami A, Abobakr A, Suaad A. Padinaboryana mediated green synthesis of crystalline palladium nanoparticles as potential nano drug against multidrug resistant bacteria and cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2021; 11: 5444.

Sana SS, Kumbhakar DV, Pasha A, Smita CP, Grace AN, Singh RP et al. Crotalaria verrucosa Leaf Extract Mediated Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Assessment of Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activity. Molecules. 2020; 25: 4896.

Jayachandran A, Aswathy TR, Nair AS. Green synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nano particles using Cayratiapedata leaf extract. Biochem Biophy Rep. 2021; 26: 100995.

Makarov VV, Love AJ, Sinitsyna OV, Makarova SS, Yaminsky IV, Taliansky ME, et al. Green nanotechnologies: synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Acta Naturae. 2014; 6 (1): 35–44.

Dhadapani P, Siddarth AS, Kamalasekaran S, Maruthamuthu S, Rajagopal G. Bio-approach: ureolytic bacteria mediated synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals on cotton fabric and evaluation of their antibacterial properties. Carbo Polym. 2014; 103: 448–455.

Shanthi S, Tharani SS. Green Synthesis of Zirconium Dioxide (ZrO2) Nano Particles Using Acalypha Indica Leaf Extract. Int J Engi Applied Sci. 2016; 3: 23-25.

Gowri S, Rajiv Gandhi R, Senthil S, Sundrarajan M. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Nyctanthes Plant Mediated Zirconia Nanoparticles; Optical and Antibacterial Activity for Optimized Zirconia. J Bionano. 2015; 9: 181–189.

Whangchai K, Shanmugam S, Van Le Q, Chau TP, Al‑Kheraif AA, Brindhadevi K, et al. Study of antimicrobial activity of Thespesiapopulnea‑coated nanozirconium on cotton gauze fabrics. Appl Nano. 2021.

Holišová V, cková ZK, Gabriela K, Kolenˇcík M, Niide T, Umetsu M, et al. Phytosynthesis of Au and Au/ZrO2 bi-Phasic System Nanoparticles with Evaluation of Their Colloidal Stability. J Nano Nanotech. 2019; 19: 2807–2813.

Gowri S, Rajiv GR, Sundrarajan M. Structural, Optical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Zirconia Nanoparticles by Biobased Protocol. J Mater Sci Technol. 2014; 30(8): 782-790.

Goyal P, Bhardwaj A, Kumar Mehta B, Mehta D. Research article green synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2NPs) using Helianthus annuus seed and their antimicrobial effects. J Indian Chem Soc. 2021; 98: 100089.

Annu A, Sivasankari C, Krupasankar U. Synthesis and characerization of ZrO2 nanoparticle by leaf extract bioreduction process for its biological studies. Mater Today: Proce. 2020; 33: 5317-5323.

Isacfranklin M, Dawoud T, Ameen F, Ravi G, Yuvakkumar R, Kumar P, et al. Synthesis of highly active biocompatible ZrO2nanorods using a bioextract. Ceramics Inter. 2020; 46: 25915-25920.

Prasada KS, Amina Y, Selvaraj K. Defluoridation using biomimetically synthesized nano zirconium chitosan composite: Kinetic and equilibrium studies. J Hazardous Mater. 2014; 276: 232–240.

Felipe Viana da Silva A, Fagundes AP, Macuvelea DLP, Urano de Carvalho EF, Durazzo M, Padoina N, et al. Green synthesis of zirconia nanoparticles based on Euclea natalensis plant extract: Optimization of reaction conditions and evaluation of adsorptive properties. Colloids Surf A. 2019; 583: 123915.

Balaji S, Mandal BK, Ranjan S, Dasgupta N, Chidambaram R. Nano-zirconia – Evaluation of its antioxidant and anticancer activity. J Photochem Photobio B. 2017; 170: 125-133.

Gurushantha K, Anantharaju KS, Nagabhushana H, Sharma SC, Vidyad YS, Shivakumara C, et al. Facile green fabrication of iron-doped cubic ZrO2 nanoparticles by Phyllanthusacidus: Structural, photocatalyticand photoluminescent properties. J Mole Catalyst A. 2015; 397: 36–47.

Shinde HM, Bhosale TT, Gavade NL, Babar SB, Kamble RJ, Shirke BS, et al. Biosynthesis of ZrO2 nanoparticles from Ficus benghalensis leaf extract for photocatalytic activity. J Mater Sci Mater Electron. 2018; 29: 14055–14064.

Sai Saraswathi V, Santhakumar K. Photocatalytic activity against azo dye and cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell lines of zirconium oxide nanoparticle mediated using leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa. J Photochem Photobio B. 2017; 169: 47–55.

Nabil A, Muthuvel A, Jothibas M, Ali A, Fahad AA, Mohana V. Biosynthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles using Wrightia tinctoria leaf extract: Characterization, photocatalytic degradation and antibacterial activities. Inorg Chem Comm. 2021; 127: 108507.

Rasheed P, Haq S, Waseem M, Ur Rehman S, Wajid R, Bibi N, et al. Green Synthesis of Vanadium Oxide-Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite for the Degradation of Methyl Orange and Picloram. Mater Res Exp. 2020; 7: 025011.

Alagarsamy A, Chandrasekaran S, Manikandan A. Green synthesis and characterization studies of biogenic zirconium oxide (ZrO2 ) nanoparticles for adsorptive removal of methylene blue dye. J Mol Stru. 2022; 1247: 131275.

Vennila R, Kamaraj P, Arthanareeswarid M, Sridharan M, Sudha G, Devikala S, et al. Biosynthesis of ZrO Nanoparticles And Its Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Studies. Mater Today: Proce. 2018; 5: 8691–8698.

Renuka L, Anantharaju KS, Sharma SC, Nagaswarupa HP, Prashantha SC, Nagabhushana H et al. Hollow microspheres Mg-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles: Green assisted synthesis and applications in photocatalysis and photoluminescence. J Alloy Comp. 2016; 672: 609-622.

Sathishkumar M, Sneha K, Yun Y-S. Green fabrication of zirconia nano-chains using novel Curcuma longa tuber extract. Mater Lett. 2013; 9: 242–245.

Davar F, Majedi A, Mirzaei A. Polyvinyl alcohol thin film reinforced by green synthesized zirconia nanoparticles. Ceramics Inter. 2018; 44: 19377–19382.

Nithya P, Balaji M, Jegatheeswaran S, Selvam S, Sundrarajan M. Facile biological synthetic strategy to morphologically aligned CeO2/ZrO2 core nanoparticles using Justiciaadhatoda extract and ionic liquid: Enhancement of its bio-medical properties. J Photochem Photo B. 2018; 178: 481-488.

Raghad DHAJ, Maryam MHMJ, Abd AN. Plants extracts as green synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles. J Genetic Environ Res Conse. 2017; 5(1): 6-23.

Krishnaraj C, Muthukumaran P, Ramachandran R, Balakumaran MD, Kalaichelvan PT. Acalyphaindica Linn: biogenic synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231, human breast cancer cells. Biotechnol Rep. 2014; 4: 42-49.

He S, Guo Z, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Wang J, Gu N. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using the bacteria Rhodopseudomonascapsulata. Mater Lett. 2007; 6: 3984-3987.

Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Khan MI, Kumar R et al. Extracellular Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Colloids Surf B . 2003; 28: 313-318.

Fayaz AM, Balaji K, Girilal M, Yadav R, Kalaichelvan PT, Venketesan R. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their synergistic effect with antibiotics: a study against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med. 2010; 6: 103-109.

Debnath B, Majumdar M, Bhowmik M, Lal Bhowmik K, Debnath A, Roy DN. The effective adsorption of tetracycline onto zirconia nanoparticle synthesized by novel microbial green technology. J Environ Manag. 2020; 261: 110235.

Ahmed T, Ren H, Noman M, Shahid M, Liu M, AliMd A, et al. Green synthesis and characterization of zirconium oxide nanoparticles by using a native Enterobacter sp. and its antifungal activity against bayberry twig blight disease pathogen Pestalotiopsis versicolor. NanoImpact. 2021; 21: 100281.

SuriyarajS P, Ramadossc G, Chandraraj K, Selvakumar R. One pot facile green synthesis of crystalline bio-ZrO2 nanoparticles using Acinetobacter sp. KCSI1 under room temperature. Mater Sci Eng C. 2019; 105: 110021.

Zielonka A, Klimek-ochab M. Fungal synthesis of size-defined nanoparticles Related content. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2017; 8: 1–9.

Al‑Enazi NM, Ameen F, Alsamhary K, Dawoud T, Al‑KhattafF, AlNadhari S. Tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2‑NPs) synthesis using Galaxaura elongate and its antimicrobial and cytotoxicity study: a greenery approach. Appl Nano. 2021.

Jain N, Bhargava A, Majumdar S, Tarafdar JC, Panwar J. Extracellular Biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus flavus NJP08: a mechanism prospective. Nanoscale. 2011; 3 (2): 635-641.

GhomiA RG, Mohammadi-Khanaposhti M, Vahidi H, Kobarfard F, Ameri Shah Reza M, et al. Fungus-mediated Extracellular Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zirconium Nanoparticles Using Standard Penicillium Species and Their Preliminary Bactericidal Potential: A Novel Biological Approach to Nanoparticle Synthesis. Iran J Pharma Res. 2019; 18 (4): 2101-2110.

Golnaraghi-Ghomi AR, Mohammadi-Khanaposhti M, Sokhansanj A, Saadati Y, Khazraei E, Kobarfard F, et al. Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Fungus-Mediated Extracellular Biosynthesis of Zirconium Nanoparticles Using Standard Penicillium spp. J Cluster Sci. 2021; 1-15.

Kavitha NS, Venkatesh KS, Palani NS, Ilangovan R. Synthesis and characterization of zirconium oxide nanoparticles using Fusarium solani extract. AIP Conf Pro. 2020; 2265: 030057.

Bansal V, Rautaray D, Ahmad A, Sastrym M. Biosynthesis of zirconia nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. J Mater Chem. 2004; 14:3303-3305.

Uddin I, Ahmad A. Bioinspired eco-friendly synthesis of ZrO2 nanoparticles.J Mater Environ Sci. 2016; 7 (9): 3068-3075.

Mukherjee P, Roy M, Mandal B, Dey G, Mukherjee P, Ghatak J, et al. Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus Trichodermaasperellum. Nanotech. 2008; 19: 75103-75110.

Dahoumane SA, Yepremian C, Djediat C, Coute A, Fievet F, Coradin T, et al. A global approach of the mechanism involved in the Biosynthesis of gold colloids using micro-algae. J Nanoparticle Res. 2014; 16: 2607.

Kumaresan M, VijaiAnand K, Govindaraju K, Tamilselvan S, Ganesh Kumar V. Seaweed Sargassum wightii mediated preparation of zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Micro Pathoge. 2018; 124: 311-315.