Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Structural Properties of a Functionally Graded Material by Adding Alumina Nanoparticles Using A Centrifugal Technique
Keywords:Flexural properties, functionally graded materials (FGMs), Impact test, centrifugal casting.
In this work, functionally graded materials were synthesized by centrifugal technique at different
volume fractions 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% Vf with a rotation speed of 1200 rpm and a constant rotation time, T
= 6 min . The mechanical properties were characterized to study the graded and non-graded nanocomposites
and the pure epoxy material. The mechanical tests showed that graded and non-graded added alumina
(Al2O3) nanoparticles enhanced the effect more than pure epoxy. The maximum difference in impact strength
occurred at (FGM), which was loaded from the rich side of the nano-alumina where the maximum value was
at 1% Vf by 133.33% of the sample epoxy side. The flexural strength and Young modulus of the functionally
graded samples were enhanced by 43.69% and 52.74%, respectively, if loaded from the alumina-rich side.
On the other hand, when loading (FGM) from the epoxy side, the amount of decrease in bending resistance
was 122.4% while the improvement in bending modulus was 81.11% compared to pure epoxy. Scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the fracture surface of the impact samples and the gradient scattering of
nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix. Numerous applications can be used to manufacture the functionally
graded material by centrifugal casting method, including for the manufacture of gears and all bending
applications such as leaf springs.
Published Online First 20/2/2023
Singh AK, Siddhartha, Yadav S. Mechanical and Fracture Peculiarities of Polypropylene-Based Functionally Graded Materials Manufactured via Injection Molding. Int Polym Process. 2019; 34(5): 573–585. https://dx.doi.org/10.3139/217.3784
Amirova L, Andrianova K, Amirova L. Processing method, properties and application of functionally graded polymer materials based on the mixtures of poorly compatible epoxy resins. Polym. Polym. Compos. 2021; 29(9): 611–621. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09673911211014763
Eterigho-Ikelegbe O, Yoro KO, Bada S. Coal as a Filler in Polymer Composites: A Review. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2021; 174: 105756. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105756
Sharshin VN, Sukhorukov DV, Sukhorukova EV. Development of gradient polymer composite and technology for its production for revolved parts with increased surface wear resistance. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater Sci Eng. 2021; 1047(1): 012063. https://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1757-99x/1047/1/012063
Saleh B, Jiang J, Fathi R, Al-hababi T, Xu Q, Wang L, et al. 30 Years of functionally graded materials: An overview of manufacturing methods, Applications and Future Challenges. Compos B Eng. 2020; 201: 108376. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2020.108376
Singh S, Dwivedi UK, Chandra Shukla S. Recent advances in polymer based functionally graded Composites. Mater Today Proc. 2021; 47: 3001–3005. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.05.324
Siddhartha, Singh AK. Mechanical and dry sliding wear characterization of short glass fiber reinforced polyester-based homogeneous and their functionally graded composite materials. Proc Inst Mech Eng L: J Mater : Des Appl. 2015; 229(4): 274–298. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1464420713511429
Singh AK, Siddhartha. A Novel Technique for Manufacturing Polypropylene Based Functionally Graded Materials . Int Polym Process. 2018; 33(2): 197–205. https://dx.doi.org/10.3139/217.3449
Kumar MS, Kumar SD, Kumar PR. Flexural Properties of Functionally Graded Epoxy-Alumina Polymer Nanocomposite. Mater Today Proc. 2018; 5(2): 8431–5. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.11.538
Shareef M, Al-Khazraji A, Amin S. Flexural Properties of Functionally Graded Polymer Alumina Nanoparticles. ETJ. 2021; 39(5A): 821–35. https://dx.doi.org/10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1949
Shamsuyeva M, Hansen O, Endres H-J. Review on Hybrid Carbon/Flax Composites and Their Properties. Int J Polym Sci. 2019; 1–17. https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9624670
Najim AS, Hadi NJ, Mohamed DJ. Study the Effect of CaCO3 Nanoparticles on the Mechanical Properties of Virgin and Waste Polypropylene. Adv Mat Res. 2014; 1016: 23–33. https://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1016.23
Mishra SK, Shukla DK, Patel RK. Effect of particle morphology on flexural properties of functionally graded epoxy-alumina polymer nanocomposite. Mater. Res. Express. 2020; 6(12): 1250i9. https://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ab70e2
Khalid R Al-rawi, Noor Husian Majeed. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy-Graphite Composites. Baghdad Sci J. 2015; 12(1): 40-45.
Reem A. Effect of Al2O3 Powder on Some Mechanical and Physical Properties for Unsaturated Polyester Resin Hybrid Composites Materials Reinforced by Carbon and Glass Fibers. E T J. 2016; 34(1): 2371-2371.
Naguib HM, Ahmed MA, Abo-Shanab ZL. Silane. Coupling agent for enhanced epoxy-iron oxide nanocomposite. J Mater Res Technol. 2018; 7(1): 21–8. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.03.002
Sathishkumar TP, Navaneethakrishnan P, Maheskumar P. Thermal Stability and Tribological Behaviors of Tri-fillers Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites. Appl Sci Eng Prog. 2021; 14(4): 727–737. https://dx.doi.org/10.14416/j.asep.2021.08.002
Siddhartha, Singh AK, Yadav S. Exploring the Possibility of Utilization of Red Mud Epoxy Based Functionally Graded Materials as Wear-Resistant Materials Using Taguchi Design of Experiment. Adv Polym Technol 2015; 36(1): 5–22. https://doi.org/10.1002/adv.21567
Gangil B, Gupta MK, Ranakoti L, Singh T. Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Vinyl-Ester-Carbon/CBPD Particulate-Filled FGMS and Their Homogenous Composites. Lect Notes Mech Eng. 2021; 159–167. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-4018-3_15
Singh T, Gangil B, Singh B, Verma SK, Biswas D, Fekete G. Natural-synthetic fiber reinforced homogeneous and functionally graded vinylester composites: Effect of bagasse-Kevlar hybridization on wear behavior. J Mater Res Technol. 2019; 8(6): 5961–5971. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.09.071
Albooyeh A, Bayat M, Rafieian P, Dadrasi A, Khatibi MM. Silica aerogel/epoxy nanocomposites: Mechanical, vibrational, and morphological properties. J Appl Polym Sci. 2020; 137(43): 49338. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.49338
Bazrgari D, Moztarzadeh F, Sabbagh-Alvani AA, Rasoulianboroujeni M, Tahriri M, Tayebi L. Mechanical properties and tribological performance of epoxy/Al2O3 nanocomposite. Ceram. Int. 2018; 44(1): 1220–4. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.10.068
Karthikeyan P, Babu B, Siva K, Chellamuthu, S. Experimental investigation on mechanical behavior of carbon nanotubes -alumina hybrid epoxy nanocomposites. Dig J Nanomater Bios. 2016; 11(2): 625 – 632.
Khalid R. Al-Rawi, Sarah Kh. Taha. The effect of nano particles of TiO2-Al2O3 on the mechanical properties of epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. Baghdad Sci J. 2015; 12(3): 597-602.
Kumar P, Srinivas J. Study on mechanical and viscoelastic behavior of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced Epofine1564 nanocomposite. J Met Mater Miner. 2019; 29(4). https://dx.doi.org/10.55713/jmmm.v29i4.512
Ali A, Zainab R. Hardness and Impact Strength of Functionally Graded Nanocomposites. Indian. J Nat Sci. 2019; 9(52): 16683-16688.
Gangil B, Kukshal V, Sharma A, Patnaik A, Kumar S. Development of hybrid fiber reinforced functionally graded polymer composites for mechanical and wear analysis. AIP Conf Proc. 2019; https://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5085630
Prasad L, Singh G, Yadav A, Kumar V, Kumar A. Properties of functionally gradient composites reinforced with waste natural fillers. Acta Period Techn. 2019; 50:250–259. https://dx.doi.org/10.2298/apt1950250p
Copyright (c) 2023 Baghdad Science Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.