This is a preview and has not been published.

Watermark Based on Singular Value Decomposition


  • Ali Abdulazeez Mohammed Baqer Qazzaz Faculty of Education, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
  • Neamah Enad Kadhim Department of Computer Sciences, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq



Cover, Norm, Ownership, Singular value decomposition, Watermark


Watermarking operation can be defined as a process of embedding special wanted and reversible information in important secure files to protect the ownership or information of the wanted cover file based on the proposed singular value decomposition (SVD) watermark. The proposed method for digital watermark has very huge domain for constructing final number and this mean protecting watermark from conflict. The cover file is the important image need to be protected. A hidden watermark is a unique number extracted from the cover file by performing proposed related and successive operations, starting by dividing the original image into four various parts with unequal size. Each part of these four treated as a separate matrix and applying SVD on it, the diagonal matrix is selected to determine its norm. The four norms will be processed to produce one unique number used as a watermark and this number can be developed  in future by exploiting some other features in constructing watermark number other than SVD process to construct two watermark numbers, each one of them owned special methodology, for avoiding some challenges and changings in the transformation process. 


Download data is not yet available.


Abdulkreem Mohammed Salih, Abdulkreem Mohammed Salih, Karam M.Z. Othman, Shayma Wail Nourildean. Improved Watermark Criteria Through Mark image. NTU J Eng Technol. 2022; 1(2): 36-39.

Jing Liang, Li Niu, Fengjun Guo, Teng Long, Liqing Zhang. VisibleWatermark Removal via Self-calibrated Localization and Background Refinement. Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Arixiv-2108. 03581v1. 8 Aug 2021.

Shivanand Pujar, Kangana W.M, Chitrashree Kurthkoti, Abhinandan P. Mangaokar, Jagadish S. Jakati. Advanced Watermarking of Digital Images Showing Robust, Semi-Fragile and Fragile Behaviour. Int J Recent Technol Eng. November, 2021; 10(4): 196-212

Dayanand G. Savakar, Shivanand Pujar. Digital Image Watermarking at Different Levels of DWT using RGB Channels. Int J Recent Technol Eng. ISSN: 2277-3878, Jan 15, 2020; 8(5): 559-570

Anna Egorova1, Victor Fedoseev. Steganalysis of Semi-fragile Watermarking Systems Resistant to JPEG Compression. Russian Academy of Sciences. Proc 15th IEEE Int Conf Comput Vis, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, Samara, Russia. 2020: 821-828.

Yanxia Jin, Rong Zhu, Xin Qi, Jinrui Zhang, Qifu Cheng, Bo Ma,, An Image Watermark Insertion and Extraction Method Based on EDA-PSO. 2nd International Conference on SEEIE, 2019; chimna: 251-256.

Tarun Agrawal. A Survey On Information Hiding Technique Digital Watermarking. G.L.A. University Mathura, UP, Int J Electr Electron Eng Telecommun.ISSN: 2320-2084, 2015; 3(8): 68-74.

Almula B. Sahin, İnan Güler. A Survey of Digital Image Watermarking Techniques Based on Discrete Cosine Transform. Int J Inf Secur Sci. 2021; 10(3): 99-110

Tsai S E, Yang S M. A Fast DCT Algorithm for Watermarking in Digital Signal Processor. Mathematical Problems in Engineering. 2017; 2017: 1-7.

Khatkale PB, Lokhande DG, Srescoe. Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Color Images. IOSR J Eng. ISSN: 2250-3021, Mar 2013; 3(3): 01-09.

Mohammed Ga’fer Alwan, Enas Muzaffer Al-Ta’ee. An Embedded Data Using Slantlet TransformIman. Baghdad Sci J. ISSN: 2078-8665, 2011; 8(3):840-848.

Gaurav Chawla, Ravi Saini, Rajkumar Yadav, Kamaldeep. Classification of Watermarking Based upon Various Parameters. Int J Comput Appl Inf Technol. ISSN: 2278-7720, September 2012; 1(2): 16-19.

Zhang H, Wang C, Zhou X. Fragile watermarking for image authentication using the characteristic of SVD. Algorithms. 2017 Mar;10(1):27.

Hanaa Mohsin Ahmed. Mobile-based Telemedicine Application using SVD and F-XoR Watermarking for Medical Images. Baghdad Sci J. ISSN: 2078-8665, 2020; 17(1):178-189.

Jugal K. Verma. Singular Value Decomposition of Real Matrices. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Vivekananda Centenary College, 13 March 2020.

Yan-Bin Jia. Singular Value Decomposition. (Com S 477/577 Notes). 2020: 1-12.

Bakthula R, Shivani S, Agarwal S. Self authenticating medical X-ray images for telemedicine applications. Multimed Tools Appl. 2018 Apr 1;77(7): 8375-92.