This is a preview and has not been published.

Effects of Water Stress, Nitrogen, Magnesium and their Interactions on Some Growth Characteristics and Essential Oil content of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.)


  • Nahla M. A. Khaleel Department of Medicinal Plants Production, Khabat Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Abdulghany O. I. Sarmamy Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq.



Rosemary, Water Stress, Nitrogen, Magnesium, Essential oil


A factorial experiment was applied with four replicates on rosemary plants (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) grown in pots inside the glasshouse of the Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq, during April, 2019 to July, 2020, to determine the effects of soil moisture content ( SM1: 100% and SM2: 60% field capacity), nitrogen fertilizer (N1: 100, N2: 200 and N3: 300kg/hectare), and magnesium fertilizer (Mg1: 0.0, Mg2: 30 and Mg3: 60kg/hectare) and their interactions on some growth characteristics  and essential oil content of rosemary plants. Two cuttings were taken from rosemary shoots (on March, 2020 and July, 2020) after 12 and 15 months of planting respectively. Results showed that cutting 1: SM2 decreased plant height, number of branches, Shoot fresh weight (FW), shoot dry weight (DW), leaves DW & stem DW. N3 increased plant height, number of branches, Shoot FW, shoot DW, leaves DW, stems FW & stem DW. Interaction treatment SM1N3Mg3 increased plant height, Shoot FW, shoot DW, leaves DW, stems FW and stem DW, while in cutting 2: SM2 decreased shoot DW, stems FW and stem DW. N3 increased Shoot FW and stem DW. Mg3 increased Root FW, but decreased stems FW. SM1N3Mg1 increased stem DW. In cutting 1+ cutting 2, SM2 decreased accumulative stem DW and biological yield FW. N3 increased accumulative Shoot FW; Accumulative leaves DW, accumulative stem FW, accumulative yield FW and biological yield DW. Mg3 increased biological yield FW, while SM1N3Mg3 treatment increased accumulative shoot DW, accumulative leaves DW, biological yield FW, and biological yield DW. In the second harvest, SM2 and Mg2 decreased rosemary essential oil %, N3 and SM1N3Mg2increased EO% and concrete content, while SM1Mg2 increased EO.


Download data is not yet available.


Andrade JM, Faustino C, Garcia C, Ladeiras D, Reis CP, Rijo P. Rosmarinus officinalis L.: an update review of its phytochemistry and biological activity. Future Sci OA. 2018; 4(4), FSO283.

Atti-Santos AC, Rossato M, Pauletti GF, Rota LD, Rech JC, Pansera MR et al. Physico-chemical evaluation of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils. Braz Arch Biol Technol. 2005 Nov; 48(6):1035-9.

Mishra AC, Negi KS, Shukla HY, Sharma AK. Effect of spacing on the performance of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) blue flowered genotype (NIC-23416) in mid hills of Uttarakhand under rainfed conditions. Nat Prod Radiance. 2009; 8(5); 528-531.

Naghibi F, Mosaddegh M, Motamed SM, Ghorbani A. Labiatae family in folk medicine in Iran: from ethnobotany to pharmacology. Iran J Pharm Sci. 2022 May 20; 4(2): 63-79.

Nogués I, Muzzini V, Loreto F, Bustamante MA. Drought and soil amendment effects on monoterpene emission in rosemary plants. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Dec 15; 538:768-78.

Pavarini DP, Pavarini SP, Niehues M, Lopes NP. Exogenous influences on plant secondary metabolite levels. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2012 Sep 21; 176(1-4): 5-16.

Pintore G, Usai M, Bradesi P, Juliano C, Boatto G, Tomi F et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. oils from Sardinia and Corsica. Flavour Frag J. 2002 Jan; 17(1): 15-9.

Taiz L, Zeiger E, Møller IM, Murphy A. Plant physiology and development. Sinauer Associates Incorporated. 6 Ed; 2015. 856 pages.

Price AH, Steele KA, Moore BJ, Jones RG. Upland rice grown in soil-filled chambers and exposed to contrasting water-deficit regimes: II. Mapping quantitative trait loci for root morphology and distribution. Field Crops Res. 2002 Jun 1; 76(1): 25-43.

Hassan FA, Bazaid S, Ali EF. Effect of deficit irrigation on growth, yield and volatile oil content on Rosmarinus officinalis, L plant. J Med Plant Stud. 2013; 1(3): 12-21.

Pietro-Souza W, Bonfim-Silva EM, Schlichting AF, Silva MD. Desenvolvimento inicial de trigo sob doses de nitrogênio em Latossolo Vermelho de Cerrado. Rev Bras de Eng Agricola e Ambient. 2013 Jun; 17(6): 575-80.

Osman Y. Organic vs chemical fertilization of medicinal plants: a concise review of researches. Adv Environ Biol. 2011; 5(2): 394-400.

Johri AK, Srivastava LJ, Singh JM, Rana RC. Effect of time of planting and level of nitrogen on flower and oil yields of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Indian J Agron. 1992 Jun 1; 37(2): 302-4.

Al-Freeh LM, Al-Abdullah SA, Huthily KH. Contribution of combinations of mineral and bio-fertilizer and organic fertilizer in the concentration of NPK on some physiological characteristics and yield of oats (Avena sativa L.). Plant Arch. 2019; 19(2): 3767-76.

Talbot C. Chlorophyll and magnesium. Science notes. 2011; 92(341): 9.

Ceylan Y, Kutman UB, Mengutay M, Cakmak I. Magnesium applications to growth medium and foliage affect the starch distribution, increase the grain size and improve the seed germination in wheat. Plant Soil. 2016 Sep; 406(1): 145-56.

Wang Z, Hassan MU, Nadeem F, Wu L, Zhang F, Li X. Magnesium fertilization improves crop yield in most production systems: a meta-analysis. Front Plant Sci. 2020 Jan 24; 10: 1727.

Farhat N, Elkhouni A, Zorrig W, Smaoui A, Abdelly C, Rabhi M. Effects of magnesium deficiency on photosynthesis and carbohydrate partitioning. Acta Physiol Plant. 2016 Jun; 38(6): 1-0.

I.A.E.A. Sampling, storage and sample preparation procedures for X ray fluorescence analysis of environmental materials. IAEA, Vienna. 1997.

Johnson DM, Hooper PR, Conrey RM. XRF analysis of rocks and minerals for major and trace elements single low dilution Li-tetraborate fused Bead: International Center for Diffraction data. (1999): 843-867.

Estefan G, Sommer R, Ryan J. Methods of soil, plant, and water analysis. Third edition, Macmilan Publishing Co. New Delhi. 2013; 143.

Chow L, Xing Z, Rees HW, Meng F, Monteith J, Stevens L. Field performance of nine soil water content sensors on a sandy loam soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada. Sensors. 2009 Nov 24; 9(11): 9398-413.

Black AL, Power JF. Effect of chemical and mechanical fallow methods on moisture storage, wheat yields, and soil erodibility. Soil Sci. Soc Am J. 1965 Jul; 29(4): 465-8.

Varley JA. A Textbook of Soil Chemical Analysis by PR Hesse London: John Murray 1971. Experimental Agriculture. 1972; 8(2):184.

Richards LA. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. Agriculture Handbook. 1954; 60.

Kassahun B M, Mekonnen M, Philophos M, Tigist G. Rosemary production and Utilization . Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR); 2016.

Van Bragt J, Van Gelder H, Pierik RL. Rooting of shoot cuttings of ornamental shrubs after immersion in auxin-containing solutions. Sci Hortic. 1976 Feb 1; 4(1): 91-4.

Patil B, Chetan HT. Foliar fertilization of nutrients. Marumegh. 2018; 3(1): 49-53.

Leghari SJ, Wahocho NA, Laghari GM, HafeezLaghari A, MustafaBhabhan G, HussainTalpur K et al. Role of nitrogen for plant growth and development: A review. Adv Environ Biol. 2016 Sep 1; 10(9): 209-19.

Semenova E, Presnyakova V, Goncharov D, Goncharov M, Presnyakova E, Presnyakov S et al. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell. J Phys Conf Ser. 2017; 784(1): 012053. IOP Publishing.

Semenova E, Presnyakova V, Goncharov D, Goncharov M, Presnyakova E, Presnyakov S, Moiseeva I, Kolesnikova S. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell. J Phys Conf Ser , 2017,784 (1): 012053. IOP Publishing.

Leithy S, EL Meseiry TA, Abdallah EF. Effect of biofertilizers, cell stabilizer and irrigation regime on rosemary herbage oil yield and quality. J Appl Sci Res. 2006; 2(10): 773-779.

dos Anjos Souza A, dos Santos AR, de Souza GS, de Jesus RS, do Carmo Lima J, de Oliveira UC. Growth and nutritional diagnosis of Rosemary plants submitted to nitrogen and sulfate fertilization. Comun. Sci. 2021; 12: e3385-.

Malik TH, Lal SB, Wani NR, Amin D, Wani RA. Effect of different levels of nitrogen on growth and yield attributes of different varieties of basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int J Sci. Technol Res. 2014; 3(3): 444-8.

Cáceres JA, Cuervo A JL, Rodríguez C JL. Effect of organic fertilization on yield and quality of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil. Agron Colomb. 2017 Aug; 35 (2): 232-7.

Yousaf M, Bashir S, Raza H, Shah AN, Iqbal J, Arif M et al. Role of nitrogen and magnesium for growth, yield and nutritional quality of radish. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 May 1; 28(5): 3021-30.

El-Mekawy MA. Response of Achillea santolina L. to fertilizers under different Irrigation intervals. Asian J Crop Sci. 2013 Oct 1; 5(4): 338.

May A, Suguino E, Martins AN, Pinheiro MQ. Produção de biomassa e óleo essencial de Mentha citrata em função do manejo cultural e adubação nitrogenada. Rev Bras Cienc Agrar. 2010; 5(3): 370-5.

Mohamed MA, Wahba HE, Ibrahim ME, Yousef AE. Effect of irrigation intervals on growth and chemical composition of some Curcuma spp. plants. Nus Biosci. 2014; 6(2):140-145.

El-Naim, A M, Ahmed M F. Effect of Irrigation Intervals and Inter-row Spacing on the Vegetative Growth Characteristics in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) hybrids in Shambat Soil. J Appl Sci Res. 2010, 6(9): 1440-1445

Valiki SRH, Ghanbari S. Comparative Examination of the Effect of Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.). Int J Agron Agric Res. 20156 (2): 29-37.

Colom MR, Vazzana C. Water stress effects on three cultivars of Eragrostis curvula. Ital J Agron. 2002; 6(2): 127-32.

Montenegro O, Magnitskiy S, Darghan A. Effect of nitrogen and potassium on plant height and stem diameter of Jatropha curcas L. in Colombian tropical dry forest. Agron Colomb. 2019 Dec; 37(3): 203-12.

Kisko MF, Kadhum NJ, Ali ZA, Abid NS. Effects of Nitrogen and Sulfur Sprays on the Growth and Production of Broccoli Brassica Oleracea var. Italica L. Baghdad Sci J. 2021; 18(3): 501-508. DOI:

Kinji FR, Rahdari P. Shortage on (magnesium and calcium) dry weight, fresh weight, root and shoot length, leaf relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content and Malondialdehyde activity in Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum Graceum). Int J Agron Plant Prod. 2012; 3(11): 535-43.

Mohidin H, Hanafi MM, Rafii YM, Abdullah SN, Idris AS, Man S, Idris J, Sahebi M. Determination of optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of oil palm seedlings in solution culture. Bragantia, Campinas. 2015 Jul 7; 74: 247-454.

Ciriello V, Guerrini IA, Backes C. Doses de nitrogênio no crescimento inicial e nutrição de plantas de guanandi. Cerne. 2014; 20(4): 653-60.

Benjamin JG, Nielsen DC. Water deficit effects on root distribution of soybean, field pea and chickpea. Field Crops Res. 2006; 1; 97(2-3):248-53.

Singh M, Ganesha Rao RS, Ramesh S. Effects of N and K on growth, herbage, oil yield and nutrient uptake patterns in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) under semi-arid tropical conditions. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol. 2007; 1; 82(3): 414-9.

Said-Al AH, Omer EA, Naguib NY. Effect of water stress and nitrogen fertilizer on herb and essential oil of oregano. Int Agrophys. 2009; 23(3): 269-75.