This is a preview and has not been published.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Micro Amount of Chromium (III) Using Sodium 4-((4,5-diphenyl-imidazol-2-yl)diazenyl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulfonate in the Presence of Surfactant, Study of Thermodynamic Functions and Their Analytical Applications


  • Hawraa Abdul Hadi Abdul Ameer Department of Chemistry, College of Science-University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq
  • Alaa Frak Hussain Department of Chemistry, College of Science-University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq



Azo dye(SDPIHN), Chromium (III), Spectrophotometry, Triton x-100, Drug tablet.


          Using sodium4-((4,5-diphenyl-imidazol-2-yl)diazenyl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulfonate (SDPIHN) as a chromogenic reagent in presence of non-ionic surfactant (Triton x-100) to estimate the chromium(III)  ion if the wavelength of this reagent 463 nm to form a dark greenish-brown complex in wavelength 586 nm at pH=10,the complex was stable for longer than 24 hours. Beer's low, molar absorptivity 0.244×, and Sandal's sensitivity 0.021 µg/cm2 are all observed in the concentration range 1-11 µg/mL. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), respectively, were 0.117 µg/mL and 0.385µg/mL. (mole ratio technique, job's method) were employed to investigate the stoichiometry of complexes, and both methods revealed that the metal to reagent ratio is equal 1:3.The absorption impact value of the reagent concentration, surfactant concentration, pH, reaction duration, temperature, addition sequences, ionic strength, masking agent, and the influence of many parameters such as affect cations and anions, among others. The influence of temperature on the reaction, which was referred to as an exothermic reaction, was also taken into account while calculating thermodynamic functions. Researchers investigated some of the complex solid's physical properties, such as solubility, molar conductivity, and melting point, as part of its development. UV-visible rays were used to investigate the chromium complex, while Relative Standard Deviation (RSD%) and Relative Error (E %) were used to assess the precision and accuracy of the novel method.


Download data is not yet available.


Abd-AL Abbas ST, Saeed SI, Hussain AF. Study of a Spectrophotometric Determination for Iron (III) using 1-[(2, 4-Dimethyl phenyl) Azo-2-Nephthol and their Thermodynamic functions. J Int Pharm Res. 2020;12(2).

Aljamali NM. Review in azo compounds and its biological activity. Biochem Anal Biochem. 2015;4(2):1-4.

Aljamali NM. Review on (azo, formazane, sulfazane)-compounds. Int J Innov Sci Eng. 2019; 10:19-45.

Grirrane A, Corma A, García H. Gold-catalyzed synthesis of aromatic azo compounds from anilines and nitroaromatics. J Sci. 2008;322(5908):1661-4.

Kudelko A, Olesiejuk M, Luczynski M, Swiatkowski M, Sieranski T, Kruszynski R. 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole-Containing azo dyes: synthesis, spectroscopic properties and molecular structure. Molecules. 2020; 25(12): 2822.

Atiyah MH, Hussain AF. Spectrophotometric Determination of Micro Amount of Copper (II) Using a New of (Azo) Derivative, Study of Thermodynamic Functions and Their Analytical Application. Sys Rev Pharm. 2020; 11(10): 171-81.

Garcia-Amorós J, Reig M, Castro MCR, Cuadrado A, Raposo MMM, Velasco D. Molecular photo-oscillators based on highly accelerated heterocyclic azo dyes in nematic liquid crystals. Chem Comm. 2014; 50(51): 6704-6.

Najim SS, Hameed M, Al-Shakban MA, Fandi TS. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in pharmaceutical medication samples using 8-Hydroxyquinoline reagent. Int J Chem. 2020; 12(1): 29-36.

Ali A I, Abdul Z. Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic properties of new azo-dyes and azo-metal complexes derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline. Bas J Sci. 2011; 28: 15-36.

Nagalakshmi G. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 2-(4-halosubstituted phenyl)-4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazoles. E-J Chem. 2008; 5(3): 447-52.

Girish Kumar K, Muthuselvi R. Spectrophotometric determination of chromium (III) with 2-hydroxybenzaldiminoglycine. J Anal Chem. 2006; 61(1): 28-31.

Shanker AK, Cervantes C, Loza-Tavera H, Avudainayagam S. Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ Int. 2005; 31(5): 739-53.

Al-Mahmoud SM. Adsorption of Some Alephatic Dicarboxylic Acids on Zinc Oxide: A kinetic and Thermodynamic Study. Baghdad Sci. J. 2019; 16(4): 0892-.

Benamor M, Belhamel K, Draa M. Use of xylenol orange and cetylpyridinium chloride in rapid spectrophotometric determination of zinc in pharmaceutical products. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2000; 23(6): 1033-8.

Asgari MS, Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani M, Sharafi Z, Faramarzi MA, Rastegar H, Nasli Esfahani E, et al. Design and synthesis of 4, 5-diphenyl-imidazol-1, 2, 3-triazole hybrids as new anti-diabetic agents: in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, kinetic and docking studies. Mol Divers. 2021; 25(2): 877-88.

Özkay Y, Işıkdağ İ, İncesu Z, Akalın G. Synthesis of 2-substituted-N-[4-(1-methyl-4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl) phenyl] acetamide derivatives and evaluation of their anticancer activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2010; 45(8): 3320-8.

Suvarna AS. Imidazole and its derivatives and importance in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals: a review. Res J Chem Sci. 2015; 5(10): 67-72.

Hatam RS, Shaheed IM, Hussain AF. Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper (II) using 2, 2 [O-Tolidine-4, 4-bis azo] bis [4, 5-diphenyl imidazole](MBBAI). Baghdad Sci J. 2020; 17(1): 287-294.

Shamsipur M, Alizadeh N. Spectrophotometric study of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead complexes with murexide in dimethylsulphoxide solution. Talanta. 1992; 39(9): 1209-12.

Barache UB, Shaikh AB, Lokhande TN, Kamble GS, Anuse MA, Gaikwad SH. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper (II) incorporated with 4-(4′-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol. 2018; 189: 443-53.

Abdulghani AJ, Hussain RK. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles via chemical reduction of Au (III) ions by isatin in aqueous solutions: Ligand concentrations and pH effects. Baghdad Sci. J. 2014; 11(3).

Lutka A, Bukowska H. Voltammetric Determination of zinc in compound pharmaceutical preparations--Validation of method. Acta Pol Pharm. 2009; 6