This is a preview and has not been published.

Kinetic Study of Polymerization Isopropylacrylamide in Aqueous Solution


  • Ameen Hadi Mohammed Department of Chemistry, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Hala Rahman Noormohamad Department of Chemistry, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Mansor Bin Ahmad Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia



Isopropylacrylamide, radical polymerization, kinetic aspects, polymerization degree


An experimental of kinetics investigation of the solution free radical polymerization of isopropylacrylamide (IPAM) initiated with potassium persulfate (PPS) was conducted. The reactions were carried out at constant temperature of 60 °C in distilled water under unstirred and inert conditions. Using the well-known conversion vs. time technique, the effects of initiator and monomer concentration on the rate of polymerization (Rp) were investigated over a wide range. Under the conditions of our work, the orders 0.38 and 1.68 were found with respect to initiator and monomer, respectively. However, the rate of polymerization (Rp) is not straight forwardly corresponding monomer concentration. The value 46.11 kJ mol1 was determined as the overall activation energy of polymerization, which is not satisfactory with the value of most thermal initiated monomers. Rp for IPAM in dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and distilled water using PPS as initiator at 60 oC, was checked. An increase in solvent polarity has slightly increased (Rp) value. The effect of using different concentrations of PPS 0.001, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.004 mol dm-3, on the average degree of polymerization (DPn), was also studied, based on viscosity results obtained using distilled water at 20 oC. The results revealed that an increase in the initiator concentration has an effect in lowering (DP) values.


Download data is not yet available.


Choudhary D, Paul S, Gupta R, Clark JH. Catalytic properties of several palladium complexes covalently anchored onto silica for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Green Chem. 2006; 8(5): 479-482.‏

Victoria Valenzuela D, Herrera Ordonez J, Luna Barcenas G. Toward a General Methodology for Modeling Diffusive Controlled Reactions in Free Radical Polymerization. Macromol Theory Simul. 2016; 25(1): 28-44.‏

Barner-Kowollik, C, Russell GT. Chain-length-dependent termination in radical polymerization: Subtle revolution in tackling a long-standing challenge. Prog Polym Sci. 2012; 34(11): 1211-1259.

Cao ZH, Shan GR, Fevotte G, Sheibat-Othman N, Bourgeat-Lami E. Miniemulsion copolymerization of styrene and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane: kinetics and mechanism. Macromolecules. 2012; 41(14): 5166-5173.‏

Mohammed AH, Ahmad MB, Ibrahim NA, Zainuddin N. Synthesis and properties of vinylpyrrolidone/ (trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate gels containing different amounts of crosslinking agent. Polimery. 2018; 63(9): 577-585.‏

Mohammed AH, Bin Ahmad M, Shameli K. Copolymerization of tris (methoxyethoxy) vinyl silane with N-vinyl pyrrolidone: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity relationships. Int J Polym Sci. 2015; 2015.‏

Pardal F, Lapinte V, Robin JJ. Kinetics of cotelomerization of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate and perfluorodecylacrylate. Eur Polym J. 2009 Apr 1; 45(4): 1198-207.

Cao ZH, Shan GR, Fevotte G, Sheibat-Othman N, Bourgeat-Lami E. Miniemulsion copolymerization of styrene and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane: kinetics and mechanism. Macromolecules. 2018 Jun 26; 41(14): 5166-73.

Du J, Chen Y. Atom-transfer radical polymerization of a reactive monomer: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate. Macromolecules. 2004 Aug 24; 37(17): 6322-8.

Christian P, Giles MR, Griffiths RM, Irvine DJ, Major RC, Howdle SM. Free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide using a pseudo-graft stabilizer: effect of monomer, initiator, and stabilizer concentrations. Macromolecules. 2000 Dec 12; 33(25): 9222-7.

Victoria Valenzuela D, Herrera Ordonez J, Luna Barcenas G, Verros GD, Achilias DS. Bulk Free Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate and Vinyl Acetate: A Comparative Study. Macromol. React Eng. 2016 Dec; 10(6): 577-87.

Dharmendira Kumar M, Konguvel Thehazhnan P, Umapathy MJ, Rajendran M. Free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of phase transfer catalyst—a kinetic study. Int J Polym Mater. 2004 Jan 1; 53(1): 95-103.

Lin HR. Solution polymerization of acrylamide using potassium persulfate as an initiator: kinetic studies, temperature and pH dependence. Eur Polym J. 2001; 37(7): 1507-1510.‏

Schrooten J, Lacík I, Stach M, Hesse P, Buback M. Propagation kinetics of the radical polymerization of methylated acrylamides in aqueous solution. Macromol Chem Phys. 2013; 214(20): 2283-2294.

‏Mohammed AH. Studying Reactivity Relationships of Copolymers N-naphthylacrylamide with (Acrylicacid and Methylacrylate). Baghdad Sci J. 2019; 16(2): 0345-0345.‏

Shoei F.Intrinsic Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationships for Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Solutions. Polym J. 1987; 19(3): 297-300.

Giap SG. The hidden property of arrhenius-type relationship: viscosity as a function of temperature. J Phys Sci. 2010; 21(1): 29-39.

Mohammed KM, Abdalla IK, Mohammed AH., Khairuddin FH, Ibrahim ANH, Rosyidi SAP, Yusoff NIM. Determining the Effects of RH-WMA on the Engineering Properties of Bitumen. J Teknol. 2019; 81(2).‏

Wu G, Wang C, Tan Z, Zhang H. Effect of temperature on emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate. Procedia Eng. 2012 Jan 1; 18: 353-7.

Yu X, Pfaendtner J, Broadbelt LJ. Ab initio study of acrylate polymerization reactions: Methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate propagation. J Phys Chem A. 2008 Jun 28; 112(29): 6772-82.

Mohammed AH, Dhedan RM, Mahmood WA, Musa, A. Copolymers of Castor and Corn Oils with Lauryl Methacrylate as Green Lubricating Additives. Egypt J Chem. 2021; 64(8): 1-2‏.

Masuda S, Minagawa K, Ogawa H, Tanaka M. Polymerization and copolymerization of methyl α‐acetylaminoacrylate. Macromol Chem Phys. 2000 Sep 1; 201(14): 1787-92.

Mohammed AH, Mahmood TA, Yousif SA, Musa, A, Dally, NN. Synthesis, Characterization and Reactivity Ratios of Poly Phenyl Acrylamide-Co-Methyl Methacrylate. Mater Sci Forum. 2020; 1002: 66-74.