This is a preview and has not been published.

Snail Shell (Rostellariella) as a Low Cost Adsorbent for Safranine Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution


  • Fatima Basim Zwier Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq.
  • Muneer A. Al-Da'amy Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq.
  • Eman Talib Kareem Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq.



Adsorption Isotherms, Freundlich, Langmuir, Safranine Dye, Snail Shell and Temken


        In this paper, snail shell powder was used an adsorbent for safranine dye due to its low cost, high efficiency and high adsorption capacity. Experiments were conducted at a temperature of 298 K to find out the effect of pH, concentration, weight, ionic strength and equilibrium time. Also, the best conditions for the adsorption of Safranin dye were implemented at a weight of 0.0200 g of snail shell powder. The removal ratio was 96.09 % at a concentration of 9mg/L and 20 minutes as adsorption time at a temperature of 298 K. The objective of the study to analyze the equilibrium isotherms. The data collected from the experiments were analyzed by the three models of adsorption: Langmuir, Temkin, and Freundlich. The data were suitable for Freundlich isotherm. The calculated thermodynamic information of the process shows that the removal process occurs through an active exchange of random molecules.


Download data is not yet available.


Anderson K, Ryan B, Sonntag W, Kavvada A, Friedl L. Earth observation in service of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Geo Spat Inf Sci. 2017; 20(2): 77-96.

Ambaye T, Vaccari M, van Hullebusch ED, Amrane A, Rtimi S. Mechanisms and adsorption capacities of biochar for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from industrial wastewater. Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran). 2021: 1-22.

Scott G, Rajabifard A. Sustainable development and geospatial information: a strategic framework for integrating a global policy agenda into national geospatial capabilities. Geo Spat Inf Sci. 2017; 20(2): 59-76.

Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Abdalla MA, Khan MR, Alothman ZA. Adsorptive removal of toxic dye using Fe3O4–TSC nanocomposite: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies. J Chem Eng Data. 2016; 61(11): 3806-13.

Shaban M, Abukhadra MR, Hamd A, Amin RR, Khalek AA. Photocatalytic removal of Congo red dye using MCM-48/Ni2O3 composite synthesized based on silica gel extracted from rice husk ash; fabrication and application. J Environ Manage. 2017; 204: 189-99.

Peramune D, Manatunga DC, Dassanayake RS, Premalal V, Liyanage RN, Gunathilake C, et al. Recent advances in biopolymer-based advanced oxidation processes for dye removal applications: A review. Environ Res. 2022: 114242.

Ćirić-Marjanović G, Blinova NV, Trchová M, Stejskal J. Chemical oxidative polymerization of safranines. J Phys Chem B. 2007; 111(9): 2188-99.

Tewari K, Singhal G, Arya RK. Adsorption removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution. Rev Chem Eng. 2018; 34(3): 427-53.

Dutta B, Rawoot YA, Checker S, Shelar SB, Barick K, Kumar S, et al. Micellar assisted aqueous stabilization of iron oxide nanoparticles for curcumin encapsulation and hyperthermia application. Nano-Struct Nano-Objects. 2020; 22: 100466.

Ibrahim HK, Amy MA, Kreem ET. Decolorization of Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 dye using snail shell powder by action of adsorption processes. Res J Pharm Technol. 2019; 12(10): 4921-5.

Kibrahim H, Muneer A, TKreem E. Effective Adsorption of Azure B Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Snail Shell Powder. J Biochem Technol. 2018; 9(3): 39-44.

Januário EFD, Vidovix TB, Araujo LAd, Bergamasco Beltran L, Bergamasco R, Vieira AMS. Investigation of Citrus reticulata peels as an efficient and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of safranin orange dye. Environ Technol. 2022; 43(27): 4315-29.

Sen S, Das PK, Manik N. Study on the effect of singlewalled carbon nanotubes on junction properties of Safranin–T dye-based organic device. J Phys Commun. 2021; 5(4): 045004.

Kareem ET, Chafat AH, Al-Da’amy MA. Iraqi porcelanite Rocks for Efficient Removal of Safranin Dye from Aqueous Solution. Baghdad Sci J. 2023; 20(2): 0270.

Sahu MK, Patel RK. Removal of safranin-O dye from aqueous solution using modified red mud: kinetics and equilibrium studies. RSC Adv.2015; 5(96):7 8491-501.

Muneer A, AL-Shemary RQ, Kareem ET. Study on the Use of Snail Shell as Adsorbent for the Removal of Azure A Dye from Aqueous solution. Int J Pharm Res.. 2018; 45: 123-9.

Paredes-Quevedo LC, González-Caicedo C, Torres-Luna JA, Carriazo JG. Removal of a textile azo-dye (Basic Red 46) in water by efficient adsorption on a natural clay. WAT. AIR AND SOIL POLL.. 2021; 232(1): 1-19.

Tran TTH, Vu NT, Pham TN, Nguyen XT. Ability to Remove Azo Dye from Textile Dyeing Wastewaters of Carbonaceous Materials Produced from Bamboo Leaves. Novel Materials for Dye-containing Wastewater Treatment. 2021: 185-208.

Suleman M, Zafar M, Ahmed A, Rashid MU, Hussain S, Razzaq A, et al. Castor leaves-based biochar for adsorption of safranin from textilewastewater.Sustainability.2021;13(12):6926.

Shaltout WA, El-Naggar GA, Esmail G, Hassan AF. Synthesis and characterization of ferric@ nanocellulose/nanohydroxyapatite bio-composite based on sea scallop shells and cotton stalks: adsorption of Safranin-O dye. Biomass Convers Biorefin. 2022: 1-18.

Farhan AM, Zaghair AM, Abdullah HI. Adsorption Study of Rhodamine –B Dye on Plant (Citrus Leaves). Baghdad Sci J. 2022; 19(4): 0838.

Bensalah J, Habsaoui A, Dagdag O, Lebkiri A, Ismi I, Rifi E, et al. Adsorption of a cationic dye (Safranin) by artificial cationic resins AmberliteŪIRC-50: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study. Chemical Data Collections. 2021;35:100756.

De Farias M, Silva M, Vieira M. Adsorption of bisphenol A from aqueous solution onto organoclay: Experimental design, kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study. Powder Technol. 2022; 395: 695-707.

Gun M, Arslan H, Saleh M, Yalvac M, Dizge N. Optimization of silica extraction from rice husk using response surface methodology and adsorption of safranin dye. Int J Environ Res. 2022; 16(2): 1-13.

Ambaye T, Vaccari M, van Hullebusch ED, Amrane A, Rtimi S. Mechanisms and adsorption capacities of biochar for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from industrial wastewater. Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran). 2021; 18(10): 3273-94.

Langmuir I. The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J Am Chem Soc. 1918; 40(9): 1361-403.

Freundlich H. Über die adsorption in lösungen. Z. Phys Chem 1907; 57(1): 385-470.

Chen X, Hossain MF, Duan C, Lu J, Tsang YF, Islam MS, et al. Isotherm models for adsorption of heavy metals from water-A review. Chemosphere. 2022: 135545.

Verma M, Ahmad W, Park J-H, Kumar V, Vlaskin MS, Vaya D, et al. One-step functionalization of chitosan using EDTA: Kinetics and isotherms modeling for multiple heavy metals adsorption and their mechanism. J Water Process Eng. 2022; 49: 102989.