This is a preview and has not been published.

Studying the Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Obese Patients


  • Nabaa Adnan Mohammed Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Fayhaa M. Khaleel Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.



Body mass index, FSG, Heme oxygenase -1, Obesity, Waist hip ratio


Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes and breaks down heme molecules into biliverdin, free iron, bilirubin, and carbon monoxide. This study aims to investigate the levels and role of (HO-1) in obese patients against oxidative stress and its relationship to obesity. The study included 139 samples: (84 obese and 55 non-obese persons). Both study groups were divided into four groups based on their Body Mass Index (BMI). Blood sample was collected from obese persons and control groups (men and women) at AL-Yarmouk Hospital and the National Diabetes Research Center at the period between December-2022 until June-2023. Some biochemical parameters were measured for all studied groups, which include: Determining of HO-1 levels in serum by using the ELISA-technique, lipid profile and fasting serum glucose (FSG) assessed enzymatic. BMI levels were found to be increased significantly in obesity class II group, obesity-class I group, and overweight group compared with normal weight groups. Also, the results showed that waist hip ratio (WHR (was significantly increased (p≤ 0.05) in groups obesity class II, obesity class I, and overweight group compared with normal weight group. Also, the results showed that the HO-1 levels were higher in obese-class I patients and obese-class II group compared with normal-weight and overweight groups. The statistical analysis displayed that, the level of HO-1 is associated negatively with BMI in normal weight group (G1), while positively with the obesity-class II, obesity-class I, and overweight groups. We conclude from this study that the body's first line of defense against oxidative stress attack is HO-1. This cell-protective enzyme reduces oxidative stress and is vital for controlling lipogenesis, which is crucial for the development of metabolic diseases and its complications.


Download data is not yet available.


Chen HJ, Yan XY, Sun A, Zhang L, Zhang J, Yan YE. Adipose extracellular matrix deposition is an indicator of obesity and metabolic disorders. J Nutr Biochem. 2023 Jan 1; 111: 109159.

Ma Y, Xiong J, Zhang X, Qiu T, Pang H, Li X, et. al. Potential biomarker in serum for predicting susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus: Free fatty acid 22: 6. J Diabetes Investig. 2021 Jun; 12(6): 950-962.

Abd Ali AH, Teplyakova ED, Bocharova OV, Karantysh GV, Shkurat TP. Investigation of the association of AGTR1 A1166C rs5186 and FTO rs9939609 polymorphisms with the obesity in children and adolescents. Baghdad Sci J. 2022 Dec 1; 19(6): 1228-1237.

Ibraheem QA, Al Obaidy LH, Nasir GA, Al-Obaidi MT. Fat Mass and Obesity Association Gene Polymorphism in PCOS Iraqi Women. Baghdad Sci J. 2020 Sep 8; 17(3): 1103-1112.

Ali IM, Yenzeel JH, Al-ansari HM. Evaluation of oxidative stress and leptin level in samples of Iraqi obese women. Iraqi J Sci. 2020 Jul 28: 61(7): 1565-1570.

Sakers A, De Siqueira MK, Seale P, Villanueva CJ. Adipose-tissue plasticity in health and disease. Cell. 2022 Feb 3; 185(3): 419-446.;.cell.2021.12.016.

Kadium TE, Alrubaie A, Ghanim SA. The Link between Serum Omentin Level and Insulin Resistance Biomarkers, Lipid Profile, and Atherogenic Indices in Iraqi Obese Patients. Baghdad Sci J. 2023 Feb1: 20(1):74-81.

Ghaben AL, Scherer PE. Adipogenesis and metabolic health. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2019 Apr; 20(4): 242-258.

Drummond HA, Mitchell ZL, Abraham NG, Stec DE. Targeting heme oxygenase-1 in cardiovascular and kidney disease. Antioxidants. 2019 Jun 18; 8(6): 181.

Bellner L, Lebovics NB, Rubinstein R, Buchen YD, Sinatra E, Sinatra G, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 upregulation: A novel approach in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2020 May 10; 32(14): 1045-1060.

Hinds Jr TD, Sodhi K, Meadows C, Fedorova L, Puri N, Kim DH, et al. Increased HO‐1 levels ameliorate fatty liver development through a reduction of heme and recruitment of FGF21. Obes. 2014 Mar; 22(3): 705-712.

Nuttall FQ. Body mass index: obesity, BMI, and health: a critical review. Nutr Today. 2015 May; 50(3): 117-128.

Nadeem MI, Bakar YI, Akram S, Baig AA. Correlation of anthropometric indices with lipid profile indices among Malay obese and non-obese subjects in Malaysia. Nutr. Food Sci. 2020 Jun 17; 51(2): 278-288.

Schneider HJ, Glaesmer H, Klotsche J, Bohler S, Lehnert H, Zeiher AM, et al. Accuracy of anthropometric indicators of obesity to predict cardiovascular risk. J Clin Endocr. 2007 Feb 1; 92(2): 589-94.

Tutunchi H, Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Ostadrahimi A, Asghari-Jafarabadi M. What are the optimal cut-off points of anthropometric indices for prediction of overweight and obesity? Predictive validity of waist circumference, waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios. Health Promot Perspect. 2020; 10(2): 142–147.

Janjić J, Baltić MŽ, Glišić M, Ivanović J, Bošković M, Popović M, et al. Relationship between body mass index and body fat percentage among adolescents from Serbian Republic. Child Obes 2016; 1(2): 1-5.

Hazart J, Montel F, Gentes E, Lahaye C, Pouget M, Farigon N, et al. Body Mass Trajectory Affects the Long-Term Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Patients with Severe Obesity. Children. 2023 Jan; 10(1): 27. 2572-5394‏.

Malaguarnera L, Madeddu R, Palio E, Arena N, Malaguarnera M. Heme oxygenase-1 levels and oxidative stress-related parameters in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients. J Hepatol. 2005 Apr 1; 42(4): 585-591.

Ryter SW. Heme Oxygenase-1: An anti-inflammatory effector in cardiovascular, lung, and related metabolic disorders. Antioxid Act. 2022 Mar 15; 11(3): 555.

Abraham NG, Junge JM, Drummond GS. Translational significance of heme oxygenase in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2016 Jan 1; 37(1): 17-36.

Tirado R, Masdeu MJ, Vigil L, Rigla M, Luna A, Rebasa P, et al. Impact of bariatric surgery on heme oxygenase-1, inflammation, and insulin resistance in morbid obesity with obstructive sleep apnea. Obes Surg. 2017 Sep; 27(9): 2338-2346.

McClung JA, Levy L, Garcia V, Stec DE, Peterson SJ, Abraham NG. Heme-oxygenase and lipid mediators in obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases: Therapeutic implications. Pharmacol Ther. 2022 Mar 1; 231: 107975.

Ranasinghe C, Gamage P, Katulanda P, Andraweera N, Thilakarathne S, Tharanga P. Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013 Dec; 13(1): 1-8.

Telles S, Pal S, Sharma SK, Singh A, Kala N, Balkrishna A. The association between the lipid profile and fasting blood glucose with weight related outcomes in healthy obese adults. BMC Research Notes. 2018 Dec; 11(383): 1-4.