This is a preview and has not been published.

Adsorption of Bromothymol Blue Dye onto Bauxite Clay


  • Asmaa Nihad Zaki Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al- Haitham), University of Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Kawther Ahmed Sadiq Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al- Haitham), University of Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Shaymaa K. Ghati Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al- Haitham), University of Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Jasim M. S. Jamur Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al- Haitham), University of Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Sarab Jassim Mohammed Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al- Haitham), University of Baghdad, Iraq.



Adsorption, Bauxite, Bromothymol, Clay, Dye


The goal of the current work is to use an inexpensive, non-toxic material with a high water absorption capacity, bauxite clay, to adsorb the bromothymol blue dye from an aqueous solution. In the production of textiles, leather, paint, food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, synthetic organic compounds are used as dyes almost exclusively in modern industrial processes. Because to their harmful side effects, which include their inherent carcinogenicity, toxicity, and mutagenicity as well as the results of their biological transformation, these dyes pose a serious hazard to the environment when they are released. Clay minerals are valuable as depolluting agents due to their swelling potential, colloidal behavior, and adsorption capacity. The adsorption behavior of bromothymol blue dye from an aqueous solution was studied using bauxite clay. Different variables such as contact time, dosage, ionic strength, and temperature were studied to show the effect on bromothymol blue adsorption onto bauxite clay from an aqueous solution using the batch adsorption method. This study showed that the adsorption decreased by increasing the temperature (15–40 C) and increased by increasing the clay weight from 0.2 to 1.6 g. It also showed as the amount of time rose, the adsorption grew until it reached an equilibrium time of 155 minutes. Thermodynamic metrics including change in free energy (∆G), enthalpy (∆H), and entropy (∆S) all were assessed. A positive correlation was found between the absorbance and the range of concentrations of bromothymol blue (4–32 g/mL) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9911. The maximum wavelength was found and set to 432 nm for all measurements


Download data is not yet available.


Waheeb AS. Adsorption and Thermodynamic Study of Direct Blue 71 Dye on to Natural Flint Clay from Aqueous Solution. Baghdad Sci J. 2016;13(2): 66–74.

Mohammed F F. Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study of Removing Methyl Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Zizphus Spina-Christi Leaf Powder. Baghdad Sci J. 2022; 20(2): 460-468.

Abbas SM, Jamur JMS, Sallal TD. Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Mebendazole Using N-Bromosuccinimide as an Oxidant and Tartarazine Dye as Analytical Reagent. Egypt J Chem. 2021; 64 (9): 4913–4917.

Abbas SM, Jamur JMS, Nasif AM. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Metoclopramide in Pharmaceutical Forms. J Appl Spectrosc. 2021; 88 (2): 433–440.

Lellis B, Fávaro-polonio CZ, Pamphile JA, Polonio JC. Effects of Textile Dyes on Health and the Environment and Bioremediation Potential of Living Organisms. Biotechnol Res Innov. 2019; 3(2): 275–290.

Senthilkannan S, Ali M. Advanced Removal Techniques for Dye-Containing Wastewaters.Springer Link. 2021.

Varjani S, Rakholiya P, Ng HY, You S. Microbial Degradation of Dyes : An Overview. Bioresour Technol. 2020; 314: 123–728.

Jamur JMS. Raman Spectroscopy Analysis for Monitoring of Chemical Composition of Aspirin after Exposure to Plasma Flame. Spectrosc Eur. 2022; 34 (5): 18–22.

Yuan GD, Theng BKG, Churchman GJ, Gates WP. Chapter 5.1 Clays and Clay Minerals for Pollution Control, Elsevier Ltd. Dev Clay Sci. 2013; 5: 587-644

Ismail NJ, Othman MHD, Kamaludin R, Esham Mohamad Izrin Mohamad, Ali Nor Amira, Rahman Mukhlis A et al. Characterization of Bauxite as a Potential Natural Photocatalyst for Photodegradation of Textile Dye. Arab J Sci Eng. 2019; 44: 10031–10040.

Fang B, Li H, Cao J, Wu J, Xu X, Wang X. Study and Analysis on The High Temperature Performance of Calcined Bauxite. Adv Mat Res. 2014; 961: 7–10.

Piri F, Mollahosseini A, Khadir A, Milani HM. Enhanced Adsorption of Dyes on Microwave-Assisted Synthesized Magnetic Zeolite-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite. J Environ Chem Eng. 2019; 7 (5): 103338.

Islam MA, Morton DW, Johnson BB, Angove MJ. Adsorption of Humic and Fulvic Acids onto a Range of Adsorbents in Aqueous Systems, and Their Effect on the Adsorption of Other Species: A Review. Sep Purif Technol. 2020; 247(15): 116949.

Benchikh I, Serier M, Launay F, Djafri F, Tabti A. Adsorption of Bromothymol Blue (BTB) Dye Using Four Zeolites as Adsorbent. Kem Ind. 2021; 70 (5–6): 243–250.

Lubbad SH, Abu Al-Roos BK, Kodeh FS. Adsorptive-Removal of Bromothymol Blue as Acidic-Dye Probe from Water Solution Using Latvian Sphagnum Peat Moss: Thermodynamic Assessment, Kinetic and Isotherm Modeling. Curr Green Chem. 2019; 6 (1): 53–61.

Abu Al–Roos BK, Lubbad SH, Abu–Saqer KK. Assessment of Thermally Treated Sphagnum Peat Moss Sorbents for Removal of Phenol Red, Bromothymol Blue and Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution. Int J Environ Stud. 2019; 76(5): 861–872.

Al-Jobouri IS, Dhahir SA, Al-Saade KA. Adsorption Study of Rhodamin B Dye on Iraqi Bentonite and Modified Bentonite by Nanocompounds TiO2, ZnO, AL2O3 and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. Am J Environ Sci. 2013; 9(3): 269–279.