Correlation between IL-6 and Age in COVID-19: Insights from a Cross-Sectional Analysis in Malang, Indonesia
Keywords:Age, Correlation, COVID-19, Interleukin-6, Severity
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a predictor of severity and mortality in COVID-19. Although morbidity and mortality generally increase with age, it remains uncertain whether there is a correlation between age and IL-6 levels, thereby exacerbating the severity of COVID-19 in patients. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between age and IL-6 levels in COVID-19 patients. The study was cross-sectional, analyzing laboratory and medical records of 3,171 COVID-19 patients who received treatment in 2021 at Saiful Anwar General Hospital. The Data analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Dunnett's Post Hoc, and Spearman Correlation tests. The patients were divided into four age groups: <20 years (1.29%), 20-40 years (18.10%), 40-60 years (43.74%), and >60 years (36.87%). The respective mean levels of IL-6 in each group were 39.44, 192.04, 217.27, and 252.59 pg/ml. A significant difference (p-value = 0.000) was observed in IL-6 levels between the <20 years age group and the other groups. Moreover, a significant positive correlation (p-value = 0.000) was identified between age group and IL-6 levels in COVID-19 patients, indicating higher IL-6 levels in older patients. In conclusion, there were differences in IL-6 levels based on age groups and age was positively correlated with IL-6 levels in COVID-19 patients.
World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard [Internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 2022 Sep10]. https://covid19.who.int
Luporini RL, Rodolpho JM, Kubota LT, Martin AC, Cominetti MR, Anibal FDE, et al. IL-6 and IL-10 are associated with disease severity and higher comorbidity in adults with COVID-19. Cytokine. 2021; 143: 155507. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155507.
Montazersaheb S, Hosseiniyan Khatibi SM, Hejazi MS, Tarhriz V, Farjami A, Ghasemian Sorbeni F, et al. COVID-19 infection: an overview on cytokine storm and related interventions. Virol J. 2022; 19(1): 92. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-022-01814-1.
Meftahi GH, Jangravi Z, Sahraei H, Bahari Z. The possible pathophysiology mechanism of cytokine storm in elderly adults with COVID-19 infection: The contribution of "inflame-aging." Inflamm Res. 2020; 69(9): 825-839. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-020-01372-8.
Koelman L, Pivovarova-Ramich O, Pfeiffer AF, Grune T, Aleksandrova K. Cytokines for evaluation of chronic inflammatory status in aging research: Reliability and phenotypic characterization. Immun Ageing. 2019; 16(1): 11. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12979-019-0151-1.
Ferrucci L, Fabbri E. Inflammageing: Chronic inflammation in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and frailty. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018; 15: 505-522. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-018-0064-2.
Jurado A, Martín MC, Abad-Molina C, Orduña A, Martinez A, Ocaña E, et al. COVID-19: Age, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and lymphocytes as key clues from a multicentre retrospective study. Immun Ageing. 2020; 17(1): 22. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12979-020-00194-w.
Jiehao C, Jin X, Daojiong L, Zhi Y, Lei X, Zhenghai Q, et al. A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: Clinical and epidemiological features. Clin Infect Dis. 2020; 71(6): 1547-1551. http://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa198.
Rea IM, Gibson DS, McGilligan V, McNerlan SE, Alexander HD, Ross OA. Age and age-related diseases: Role of inflammation triggers and cytokines. Front Immunol. 2018; 9: 586. http://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00586.
Hammami S, Ghzaiel I, Hammouda S, Sakly N, Hammami M, Zarrouk A. Evaluation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in frail Tunisian older adults. PLoS ONE. 2020; 15(11): e0242152. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242152.
Mohsin AJ, Hussein TA. The role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma - a study in Iraqi patients. Baghdad Sci J . 2014; 11(2): 358.
Liu T, Zhang J, Yang Y, Ma H, Li Z, Zhang J, et al. The role of interleukin‐6 in monitoring the severe case of coronavirus disease 2019. EMBO Mol Med. 2020; 12(7). http://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202012421
Potere N, Batticciotto A, Vecchié A, Porreca E, Cappelli A, Abbate A, et al. The role of IL-6 and IL-6 blockade in COVID-19. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2021; 17(6): 601-618. http://doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2021.1919086
Unver N, McAllister F. IL-6 family cytokines: Key inflammatory mediators as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2018; 41: 10-17. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2018.04.004
Mustafa AJ, Ismail PA. Association of potent inflammatory cytokine and oxidative DNA damage biomarkers in stomach cancer patients. Baghdad Sci J. 2022 Dec. 1 [cited 2023 May 29]; 19(6): 1313. https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2022.6589
Ponti G, Maccaferri M, Ruini C, Tomasi A, Ozben T. Biomarkers associated with COVID-19 disease progression. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2020; 57(6): 389-399. http://doi.org/10.1080/10408363.2020.1770685
Copyright (c) 2023 Baghdad Science Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.