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In Vivo Study the Cytogenetic Effect of Ammi majus Methanolic Extract on Mitotic Index, Micronucleus Formation and DNA Damage on Mitoxantrone Treated Albino Male Mice


  • Ruqaya Mohammed Al-ezzy Department of molecular and medical biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Maysaa Hamid Ahmed Department of plant Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Hadeel Mohamed Khalaf Department of molecular and medical biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.



Anticancer, Male mouse, Medicinal plant, Metaphase index, Methanolic extract


Medicinal plants or their secondary metabolites have shown different biological effects with a wide range of pharmacological properties; for instance, immune stimulator, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. One of these medicinal plants is Ammi majus. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the cytogenetic impact of a methanolic extract of the Ammi majus plant on micronucleus formation, mitotic index and DNA damage in mice that had been given intraperitoneally mitoxantrone medicine (anticancer drug). Mice were divided into four groups, each group consisting of four mice: group I (positive control), mice treated with 0.008 mg/mouse mitoxantrone, group II (negative control), mice not given any treatment, group III, and group IV (interaction groups), mice treated with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of plant extract three through seven, respectively, after receiving injections of the mitoxantrone drug on days one and two. The findings showed that, in comparison to positive and negative controls, the plant has the ability to induce the mitotic index to 10.67±2.33% and 12.65± 3.01% for 50 and 100 mg\kg respectively, compared to 5.31±1.33% for mitoxantrone treated mice. In addition, the results of micronucleus formation indicated the capacity of the plant to reduce its formation to 2.63 ±0.011 and 2.47±0.012 micronucleus\cell after treating the mice with Ammi majus two doses (50 and 100 mg\kg), in comparison to the drug that enhances micronucleus formation to (4.28± 0.00 micronucleus\cell). DNA damage results explained the ability of the  plant to reduce DNA tail damage to 134 ±22.3 and 117 ±16.1% for 50 and 100 mg/kg of Ammi majus extract, respectively which increased to (176 ±11.23%) after mice were treated with drugs. All these findings may be attributed to plant-active compounds such as flavonoids and other constituents.


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