Biodiversity and Microorganisms Variation of Endemic Duku (Lancium domesticum Corr.) Rhizosphere in the Wet and Dry Main Growing Site in Jambi, Indonesia
Keywords:AMF, Glomeraceae, Mycorrhizae, Sudden death, Water mold
Duku are endemic plants of Jambi Province, Indonesia. They inhabit and used to grow well in alluvial along riverbanks, but lately have experienced sudden death disease outbreaks for the last decades. This situation has been prevalent since the frequent flooding due to the depletion of forest areas upstream. Since it is caused by water mold Phytophthora palmivora, it was supposed that sudden death disease should only occur in wet areas, but factually, the disease is also found in dry areas. This inspired us to investigate other soil biology factors of its rhizosphere in wet and dry habitats. Samples came from the rhizosphere of diseased and healthy duku in several alluvial areas of the Batang Hari River representing wet and dry habitats. This study found that the soil microbial community in dry and wet habitats was inhabited by mycorrhizal communities, bacteria, and fungi. The relative abundance of microbes in dry and wet habitats in healthy and diseased plants showed varied species. In the wet habitat-healthy plants, the relative abundance of Sclerocytis was 33.33%, Gigaspora 33.34%, and Glomus 33.33%. In the wet habitat-diseased plants, the relative abundance of mycorrhizae was Sclerocytis 66.67%, Glomus 33.33%, and no Gigaspora. The bacteria group was found to be the largest at 70,49% in dry habitats and 72.13% in wet habitats. The fungal group was 14,08% in dry and 16.39% in wet habitats. Mycorrhiza showed the smallest percentage in the rhizosphere of duku plants. We found that VAM correlated negatively with N, and P in the rhizosphere, and Glomus sp. existence correlated positively with soil K.
Published Online First 20/09/2023
Nishizawa M, Emura M, Yamada H, Shiro M, Hayashi Y, Tokuda H. Isolation of a new cycloartanoid triterpene from leaves of Lansium domesticum novel skin-tumor promotion inhibitors. Tetrahedron Lett. 1989 ; 30(41): 5615-5618. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)93813-4
Agriculture Department. Agricultural data on food crops and fruits. Directorate General of Food Crops and Horticulture. Directorate of Horticultural Production Development. 2018 Agriculture Department. Jakarta.
Handoko S, Hadisutrisno B. Kajian Epidemi Penyakit Kanker Batang Duku Di Provinsi Jambi (Epidemic Study of Duku Stem Canker Disease in Jambi Province). Ph.D. (dissertation). Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Gajah Mada University. 2014. http://etd.repository.ugm.ac.id/penelitian/detail/74339
Erwin DC, Ribeiro OK. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. St Paul MN: The American Phytopathological Society. 1996. 592 p.
Hayati I, Wiyono S, Widodo, Sobir. Variability of agronomic characters related to resistance to stem canker (Phytophthora palmivora) on duku (Lansium domesticum) along Batanghari River, Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 2019 Apr; 20(4): 1127-1132. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d200426
Trejo-Aguilar D, Banuelos J. Isolation and Culture of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi from Field Samples. Methods Mol Biol. 2020; 2146: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0603-2_1.
Peters MK, Hemp A, Appelhans T, Behler C, Classen A, Detsch F, et al. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level. Nat Comm. 2016 Dec;7: 13736. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13736
Vieira LC, da Silva DKA, de Melo MAC, Escobar IEC, Oehl F, da Silva G A. Edaphic factors influence the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi along an altitudinal gradient of a Tropical Mountain. Microb Ecol. 2019 Nov; 78: 904–913. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-019-01354-2
Zhang M, Yang M, Shi Z, Gao J, Wang X. Biodiversity and Variations of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Roots along Elevations in Mt. Taibai of China. Diversity. 2022 Aug; 14(8): 626. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14080626
Shi ZY, Yin KJ, Wang FY, Mickan BS, Wang XG, Zhou WL, et al. Alterations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in soil with elevation in tropical forests of China. Diversity. 2019 Oct; 11: 181. https://doi.org/10.3390/d11100181
Zhang XM, Chen BD, Yin RB, Xing SP, Fu W, Wu H, et al. Long-term nickel contamination increased soil fungal diversity and altered fungal community structure and co-occurrence patterns in agricultural soils. J Hazard Mater. 2022 Aug; 436:129113. Epub 2022 May. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129113.
Adnan M, Islam W, Gang L, Chen HYH. Advanced research tools for fungal diversity and its impact on the forest ecosystem. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2022 Apr; 29; 45044–45062. https://doi.org//10.1007/s11356-022-20317-8
Montiel-Rozas MDM, Lopez-Garcia A, Madejon P, Madejon E. Native soil organic matter is a decisive factor to determine the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community structure in contaminated soils. Biol Fertil Soils. 2017 Febr; 53: 327–338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-017-1181-5
Cosme M. Mycorrhizas drive the evolution of plant adaptation to drought. Commun Biol. 2023 March; 6: 346. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-023-04722-4
Huey CJ, Gopinath SCB, Uda MNA, Zulhaimi HI, Jaafar MN, Kasim FH, et al. Mycorrhiza: a natural resource that assists plant growth under varied soil conditions. 3 Biotech. 2020 May; 10(5): 204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02188-3.
Wang Y, Huang Y, Qiu Q, Xin G, Yang Z, Shi S. Flooding greatly affects the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities in the roots of wetland plants. PLoS ONE 2011 Sept; 6 (9): e24512. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024512
Xie MM, Zou YN, Wu QS, Zhang ZZ, Kuča K. Single or dual inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia regulates plant growth and nitrogen acquisition in white clover. Plant Soil Environ. 2020; 66(6): 287–294. https://doi.org/10.17221/234/2020-PSE
Sah S, Reed S, Jayachandran K, Dunn C, Fisher JB. The effect of repeated short-term flooding on mycorrhizal survival in snap bean roots. Hort Sci. 2006 Jun 1; 41(3): 598-602. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.41.3.598
Tuheteru FD, Wu QS. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and tolerance of waterlogging stress in plants. Arbuscular Mycorrhizas and stress tolerance of plants. 2017: 43-66. Springer. Singapore
Wirsel SGR. Homogenous stands of a wetland grass harbor diverse consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2004 May; 48: 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsec.2004.01.006
Thomas PW. Ectomycorrhiza resilience and recovery to extreme flood events in Tuber aestivum and Quercus robur. Mycorrhiza. 2021 May; 31(4): 511–517. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-021-01035-4
Zou YN, Srivastava AK, Wu QS, Huang YM. Increasing tolerance of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings to waterlogging after inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J Animal Plant Sci. 2014 Oct; 24: 1415–1420. ISSN: 1018-7081
Loo WT, Chua KO, Mazumdar P, Cheng A, Osman N, Harikrishna JA. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: A Strategy for Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Tropical Legume Crops. Plants (Basel). 2022 Oct 27; 11(21): 2875. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212875.
Zheng Fl, Liang SM, Chu XN, Yang YL, Wu QS. Mycorrhizal fungi enhance the flooding tolerance of peaches by inducing proline accumulation and improving root architecture. Plant Soil Environ. 2020 Nov; 66(12): 624–631. https://doi.org/10.17221/520/2020-PSE
Maitra P, Zheng Y, Wang YL, Mandal D, Lu PP, Gao C,et al. Phosphorus fertilization rather than nitrogen fertilization, growing season, and plant successional stage structures arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in a subtropical forest. Biol Fertil Soils. 2021 April; 57: 685–697. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-021-01554-4
Hu W, Coomer TD, Loka DA, Oosterhuis DM, Zhou, Z. Potassium deficiency affects the carbon-nitrogen balance in cotton leaves. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2017 Jun; 15: 408–417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.04.005
Sardans J, Peñuelas J. Potassium Control of Plant Functions: Ecological and Agricultural Implications. Plants (Basel). 2021 Feb 23; 10(2): 419. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020419.
Olsson PA, Hammer EC, Wallander H, Pallon J. 2008. Phosphorus availability influences elemental uptake in the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, as revealed by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 74: 4144–4148. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00376-08
Olsson PA, Rahm J, Aliasgharzad N. Carbon dynamics in mycorrhizal symbioses is linked to carbon costs and phosphorus benefits. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2010 Apr;72: 123–131. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00833.x
Wang GZ, Koziol L, Foster BL, Bever JD. Microbial mediators of plant community response to long-term N and P fertilization: Evidence of a role of plant responsiveness to mycorrhizal fungi. Glob Change Biol. 2022 Jan; 28: 2721–2735. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16091
Garo G, Van Geel M, Eshetu F, Swennen R, Honnay O, Vancampenhout K. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi community composition, richness, and diversity on enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) in Ethiopia is inﬂuenced by manure application intensity in low-input farming systems. Plant Soil. 2022 May; 478: 409-425. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-022-05462-w
Chen Q, Wu WW, Qi SS, Cheng H, Li Q, Ran, Q, et al. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth and disease resistance of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata. J Appl Microbiol. 2021 Feb; 130: 582–591. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14415
Mitra D, Djebaili R, Pellegrini M, Mahakur B, Sarker A, Chaudhary P, et al. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: plant growth improvement and induction of resistance under stressful conditions. J Plant Nutr. 2021 Feb; 44(13): 1993-2028. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2021.1881552
Weng W, Yan J, Zhou M, Yao X, Gao A, Ma C, et al. Roles of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a biocontrol agent in the control of plant diseases. Microorganisms. 2022 Jun 22; 10(7): 1266. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071266.
Tian B, Pei Y, Huang W, Ding J, Siemann E. Increasing flavonoid concentrations in root exudates enhance associations between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and an invasive plant. The ISME J. 2021 Febr; 15:1919–1930. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-00894-1
Tatsumi C, Hyodo F, Taniguchi T, Shi W, Koba K, Fukushima K, et al. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Community in Roots and Nitrogen Uptake Patterns of Understory Trees Beneath Ectomycorrhizal and Non-ectomycorrhizal Overstory Trees. Front Plant Sci. 2021 Jan; 11: 583585. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.583585
Basyal B, Emery SM. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus alters switchgrass growth, root architecture, and cell wall chemistry across a soil moisture gradient. Mycorrhiza. 2020 Oct; 31: 251–258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-020-00992-6
Boutaj H, Meddich A, Wahbi S, Moukhli A, El Alaoui-Talibi Z, Douira A, et al. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Verticillium wilt development of olive trees caused by Verticillium dahliae. Res J Biotechnol. 2019 July; 14:8.
Pozo MJ, Cordier C, Dumas-Gaudot E, Gianinazzi S, Barea JM, Azcón-Aguilar C. Localized versus the systemic effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on defense responses to Phytophthora infection in tomato plants. J Exp Bot. 2002 March; 53: 525–534. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/53.368.525
Tahat MM, Kamaruzaman S, Radziah O, Kadir J, Masdek HN. Plant Host Selectivity for Multiplication of Glomus mosseae Spore. Int J Bot. 2008: 4(4): 466-470. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijb.2008.466.470
Hause B, Mrosk C, Isayenkov S, Strack D. Jasmonates in arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions. Phytochemistry. 2007 Jan; 68: 101–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.09.025
Zuo Y, Sun S, Shaokun W, Yue P, Hu Y, Zhao Y, et al. Contrasting relationships between plant-soil microbial diversity are driven by geographic and experimental precipitation changes. 2023 Feb. Sci Total Environ; 861: 160654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160654
Jaafar RS. The Potential Role of Soil Bacteria as an Indicator of Heavy Metal Pollution in Southern Iraq. Baghdad Sci J . 2022 Aug; 19(4): 0753. https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2022.19.4.0753
Shahatha EF, Al-Mousawi AH, Ibrahim KM. Bioremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated soil by Sesbania rostrata plant and AM fungi Glomus mosseae. Baghdad Sci J. 2016 Jun; 13(2): 212-217. htps://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2016.13.2.0212
Copyright (c) 2023 Baghdad Science Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.