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This paper involved the registration of 1,936 cases of infection of the Leishmania tropica parasite observed at hospitals and health centers in Ramadi, Fallujah, Baghdadi, and Hit during 2017. The results revealed that the highest rates of infection were found in Ramadi and Fallujah. The 1-10 years age group recorded the highest rate at 35.5%. There was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between the sexes. December and January saw the highest rate of infection, where the rate in rural townships was found to be 65.5%, higher than in urban regions which saw a rate of 34.4%. Facial lesions were the most prominent area of infection, recorded at a rate of 41.3%. The study also included an examination of 180 rodents (94 mice and 86 black rats) - the investigation demonstrated the presence of the amastigote stage at a rate of 43.6% among mice and 53.4% among rats. The study also involved an analysis of the impact of the use of a water extract from the Rhanterium epapposum plant, also locally known as the Arfaj plant, on Leishmania tropica parasite growth. As part of this study, a concentration of between 0.05-5 mg/ml was used. The application of these concentrations led to an inhibitory effect on parasite growth - an application of relatively higher concentrations caused greater effects in times of growth between 1-5 days.
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