Correlation between Particulate Matter 10 (PM10) Exposure Time and Black Dots in Buccal Cells of Medan Landfill Recycling Workers

Authors

  • T. K. Intan Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.
  • M. Ichwan Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • D. Munir Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, Head and Neck, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.
  • N. N. Soeroso Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2687-4924
  • A. P. Tarigan Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.
  • Z. Yamamoto Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.
  • N. C. Siregar Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2024.10007

Keywords:

AgNORs, black dots, buccal epithelial cells, early detection, malignancy, Open landfill, recycling workers.

Abstract

This research explores the link between particulate matter (PM10) exposure and number of black dots in buccal epithelial cell nuclei in recycling workers (PDU), at the Medan City landfill, Indonesia. The study aims to identify the correlation PM10 levels, pollutant characteristics at the landfill, the appearance of AgNOR-expressed black dots in PDU groups. The measurements of PM10 exposure were carried out in open landfills in Medan city, and the subject of study is recycling workers who worked in landfills. Buccal epithelial cells were collected using an oral cytobrush smear, and the black dots were examined cytologically. Statistical analysis assessed the relationship between prolonged PM10 exposure and the number of black dots. The study found that most recycling workers were older than 55 (36%), with significant pollution exposure effects indicated by a higher average number of black dots in their buccal cells compared to non-recycling workers (BPDU), with the highest numbers in the 36-45 and 46-55 age groups (each 30%). When looking at their work hours, more than half of BPDU workers (52%) worked for 8 hours a day, and the majority of PDU also worked for the same duration of time. This suggests an association between their occupational exposure to environmental pollutants and health impacts, also considering age and work hours. The findings underscore the need to factor in these aspects when addressing worker health in polluted environments.

References

Nasution EN. Kota Medan Dalam Angka 2019. (Nasution EN, ed.). BPS_Statistics of Medan Municipality; 2019; 203-205.

Mukhtar R, Wahyudi H, Hamonangan E, Lahtiani S, Santoso M, Lestiani D D, et al. Kandungan Logam Berat Dalam Udara Ambien Pada Beberapa Kota Di Indonesia. Jurnal Ecolab. 2013; 7(2): 49-59. https://doi.org/10.20886/jklh.2013.7.2.49-59

Ali SM, Pervaiz A, Afzal B, Hamid N, Yasmin A. Open dumping of municipal solid waste and its hazardous impacts on soil and vegetation diversity at waste dumping sites of Islamabad city. J King Saud Univ Sci. 2014; 26(1): 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2013.08.003

Kimani NG. Environmental Pollution and Impacts on Public Health: Implications of the Dandora Dumping Site Municiap in Nairobi, Kenya. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2007; 1-14.

White SS, Birnbaum LS. An Overview of the Effects of dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds on Vertebrate, as Documented in Human and Ecological Epidemiology. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2009; 27(4): 197-211. https://doi.org/10.1080/10590500903310047.An

Chatham-Stephens K, Caravanos J, Ericson B, Sunga-Amparo J, Susilorini B, Sharma P, et al. Burden of disease from toxic waste sites in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in 2010. Environ Health Perspect. 2013; 121(7): 791-796. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206127

Ray M, Roychoudhury S, Mukherjee G, Roy S, Lahiri T. Respiratory and General Health Impairments of Workers Employed in a Municipal Solid Waste Disposal at an Open Landfill Site in Delhi. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2005; 208: 255-262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2005.02.001

Adoga AA, Kokong DD, Nimkur TL, Ma’an ND. Environmental and Life-Style Related Risk Factors for Sinonasal and Nasopharyngeal Malignancies among a Prospective Cohort in Jos, Nigeria. Int J Otolaryngol. 2018; 2018(October): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8524861

Mordukhovich I, Lepeule J, Coull BA, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. The effect of oxidative stress polymorphisms on the association between long-term black carbon exposure and lung function among elderly men. Thorax. 2015; 70(2): 133-137. https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206179

Boström CE, Gerde P, Hanberg A, Jernström B, Johansson C, Kyrklund T, et al. Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air. Environ Health Perspect. 2002; 110(SUPPL. 3): 451-488. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.110-1241197

Hou L, Zhang X, Wang D, Baccarelli A. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics. Int J Epidemiol. 2012; 41(1): 79-105. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyr154

Ferrari L, Carugno M, Bollati V. Particulate matter exposure shapes DNA methylation through the lifespan. Clin Epigenetics. 2019; 11(1): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0726-x

Alabi OA, Adeoluwa YM, Bakare AA. Elevated Serum Pb, Ni, Cd, and Cr Levels and DNA Damage in Exfoliated Buccal Cells of Teenage Scavengers at a Major Electronic Waste Dumpsite in Lagos, Nigeria. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2020; 194(1): 24-33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01745-z

Sharma S, Kelly TK, Jones PA. Epigenetics in cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2009; 31(1): 27-36. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgp220

Stirzaker C, Zotenko E, Song JZ, Qu W, Nair SS, Locke WJ, et al. Methylome sequencing in triple-negative breast cancer reveals distinct methylation clusters with prognostic value. Nat Commun. 2015; 6. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6899

Tandelilin RTC, Widita E, Puspita RM, Mun TS. Analisis sitogenetik sel epitel mukosa bukal pekerja stasiun pengisi bahan bakar umum di kota yogyakarta. Jurnal Teknosains. 2021; 10(2): 160. https://doi.org/10.22146/teknosains.43852

Prasanna S, Srikant N. Silver dots - A screening and prognostic aid in oral health. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2021; 14(1): 513-517. https://doi.org/10.13005/bpj/2152

Abd A, Idris A, Abdelbadie A. The Role of AgNOR in Improving the Efficacy of FNA in the Detection of Breast Lumps. Res Sq.. Published online February 28, 2022. https://doi.org/10.21203/RS.3.RS-1118299/V1

Charan J, Biswas T. How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research? Indian J Psychol Med. 2013; 35(2): 121-126. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.116232

Bappenas, KLHK. Sipsn Klhk 2021. Published online 2021.

Khoiron K, Probandari AN, Setyaningsih W, Kasjono HS, Setyobudi RH, Anne O. A review of environmental health impact from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. Ann Trop Med Public Health. 2020; 23(3): 60-67. https://doi.org/10.36295/ASRO.2020.23316

Arumdani IS, Puspita AS, Budihardjo MA. MSW handling of top 5 leading waste-producing countries in Southeast Asia. In: IOP Conf Ser: Earth Env Sci; 896. IOP Publishing Ltd; 2021. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/896/1/012003

Huang HC, Tantoh DM, Hsu SY, Nfor ON, Frank CFL, Lung CC, et al. Association between coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma among Taiwanese men. J Investig Med. 2020; 68(2): 419-424. https://doi.org/10.1136/jim-2019-001119

Chu YH, Kao SW, Tantoh DM, Ko PC, Lan SJ, Liaw YP. Association between fine particulate matter and oral cancer among Taiwanese men. J Investig Med. 2019; 67(1): 34-38. https://doi.org/10.1136/jim-2016-000263

García-Cuellar CM, Santibáñez-Andrade M, Chirino YI, Quintana-Belmares R, Morales-Barcenas R, Quezada-Maldonado E, et al. Particulate matter (PM10) promotes cell invasion through epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) by TGF-β activation in A549 lung cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2021; 22(23). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312632

Suryati I, Akbar MN, Latifah N. Dampak. Studi Kandungan Logam Berat ( As , Cd , Cr , Pb Dan Hg ) dalam Particulate Matter 10 Mikron ( PM 10 ) di Beberapa Ruas Jalan Kota Medan. Jurnal Dampak. 2019; 02: 77-85. https://doi.org/10.25077/dampak.16.2.77-85.2019

Suyatmi, Subiyantoro P, Indrakila S. Buccal swab, a minimally invasive method for the screening of oral cancer in active smokers. J Phys Conf Ser. 2018; 1022(1): 5-10. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1022/1/012049

Njoku PO, Edokpayi JN, Odiyo JO. Health and environmental risks of residents living close to a landfill: A case study of thohoyandou landfill, Limpopo province in S Afr Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16(12): 10-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122125

Thirarattanasunthon P, Siriwong W, Robson M, Borjan M. Health risk reduction behaviors model for scavengers exposed to solid waste in municipal dump sites in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2012; 5: 97-104. https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S30707

Hafiar H, Subekti P, Komala L, Bakti I, Romli R. Health Search Behavior by The Scavenger in The Landfill Area. Proceedings: Workshop on Environmental Science, Society, and Technology. Westech 2019. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.8-12-2018.2283935

Ziraba AK, Haregu TN, Mberu B. A review and framework for understanding the potential impact of poor solid waste management on health in developing countries. Arch Public Health. Published online 2016: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-016-0166-4

Fazzo L, Minichilli F, Santoro M, Cecarini A, Sea MD, Comba P, et al. Hazardous waste and health impact: A systematic review of the scientific literature. Environ Health. 2017; 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-017-0311-8

Tupkari J, Rajput D. Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2010; 14(2): 52-58. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-029x.72501

Malgaonkar N, Dagrus K, Vanaki S, Puranik R, Sharanesha M, Tarakji B. Quantitative analysis of agnor counts of buccal mucosal cells of chewers and non chewers of gutkha: A comparative cytologic study. J Cancer Res Ther. 2016; 12(1): 228-231. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.148713

Espitia-Perez L, Jimenez-Vidal L, Espitia-Perez P. Particulate Matter Exposure:Genomic: Instability, Disease and Cancer Risk. Env Health – Man Preve Prac. 2020: 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/57353

Remmerbach TW, Weidenbach H, Müller C, Hemprich A, Pmjanski N, Buckstegge B, et al. Diagnostic value of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in brush biopsies of suspicious lesions of the oral cavity. Anal Cell Pathol. 2003; 25(3):139-146. https://doi.org/10.1155/2003/647685

Tomazelli KB, Modolo F, Rivero ERC. Evaluation of AgNORs in oral potentially malignant lesions. J Oncol. 2015; 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/218280

Küchler EC, Tannure PN, Falagan-Lotsch P, Lopes TS, Granjeiro JM, de Amorim LMF. Buccal cells DNA extraction to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for polymorphism genotyping by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR. J Appl Oral Sci. 2012; 20(4): 467-471. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-77572012000400013

Shirani S, Kargahi N, Razavi SM, Homayoni S. Epithelial dysplasia in oral cavity. Iran J Med Sci. 2014; 39(5): 406-417.

Singh S, Bhargava D, Ali S, Mishra R, Chandavarkar V. Prognostic Potential of Argyrophillic Nucleolar Organizer Regions (Agnors) in Oral Lesions: A Systematic Review. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia. 2022; 19(4): 857-866. https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/3036

Downloads

Issue

Section

article

How to Cite

1.
Correlation between Particulate Matter 10 (PM10) Exposure Time and Black Dots in Buccal Cells of Medan Landfill Recycling Workers. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2024 Jun. 14];21(12). Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/10007