Aquatic Oligochaeta (Annalida:Clitellata) as Bio Indication for Sediment Quality Assessment in Tigris River Within Baghdad City /Iraq

Main Article Content

Dlovan kamal Aljaff
H. J. Jaweir


Aquatic Oligochaeta is an important group of Macroinvertebrates that has been very remarkable as bioindicators for assessing water pollution and determining its degree in water bodies. Hence, the idea of the current study aims at studying the impact of Baghdad effluents on the Tigris River by using oligochaetes community as bioindicators . For this purpose, four sites along the inside of Baghdad has been chosen. Site S1 has been located upstream, site S2 and S3 has been at midstream and site S4 at the downstream of the River.This investigation has used different types of biological indicators, including the  percentage of oligochaeta  within benthic invertebrates, which ranged from 49.2-51.28%. The highest percentage of the tubificid worms in the benthic samples has been 26.95% and recorded at S4, while the lowest percentage has been 14.45% recorded at S1. Pollution index D ranged between 0.34 and 0.52. The highest value of the ratio of  oligochaeta to Chironomidae larvae has been 3.5 recorded at S4, while the lowest value has been 2.6 reported at S1. The percentage of L. hoffmeisteri within the oligochaetes community has been from 35-56%.  The highest value of  biological quality index Io has been   9.89  recorded at S1, and the lowest value has been (5.57)  recorded in S4.  A Composite index of Biological quality  (Eo) index recorded as C5 in S1 and C4,D3 and E3 in the other sites.  Oligochaeta index of sediment bioindication (IOBS) values ranged between 2.55 at S1 and 1.15 at S4. The tubicid index of sediment TUSP reported at d the highest value (52.57%) at  S4 where as the lowest value has been 28.68% at S1. The highest species richness value has been 7.35  recorded at S1 and the lowest value has been 6.12 at S3. Shannon- Weiner diversity index (H) ranged from 0.06-0.049 Bit/ind. Species uniformity index (E) has been 0.018-0.016.It is clear from the results that most of the biological indices indicate that the Tigris River sediment has been slightly impacted by anthropogenic activity during its passage through the Capital Baghdad.  S1 is considered as a reference site, as it has presented the first point of entry of the Tigris River to Baghdad and then the sediment gradually  has become polluted to reach its highest degree in  the last site S4 after passing through several  slightly polluted sites.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Aljaff D kamal, Jaweir HJ. Aquatic Oligochaeta (Annalida:Clitellata) as Bio Indication for Sediment Quality Assessment in Tigris River Within Baghdad City /Iraq. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2021Mar.30 [cited 2022Jun.26];18(1(Suppl.):0665. Available from:


Parmar TK, Rawatani D,Agrawal YK. Bioindicators: the natural indicator of environmental pollution. FRONT LIFE SCI:.2016;9 ( 2):110-118.

Asif N , Malik MF, Chaudhry GN. A review of on environmental pollution bioindicators. Pollut. 2018;4 (1):111-118.

Lavoie I, Morin S, Laderriere V, Fortin C .Freshwater diatoms as indicators of combined long –term mining and urban stressors in Junction Creek (Ontario,Canada). Environments. 2018;(5):30.

Azza SH, Al-Saad HT, Al-Adhub AY. Using Two Species From Common Aquatic Plants as Bio-indicators of Pollution With Hydrocarbons Compounds in Al-Kahlaa River -Missan Province/ Iraq. Int. J. Mar. Sci.. 2016; 6(3): 1-4 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2016.06.0003)

Patang F,Soegianto A, Hariyanto S. benthic Macroinvertebrates diversity as bioindicator of water quality of some river in east Kalimantan,Indonesia. Hindawi. Int. J. Ecol.2018;11p.

Britoa JG, Martinsa RT, Oliveiraa VC, Hamadaa N, Nessimianc JL, Hughesd RM, et al. Biological indicators of diversity in tropical streams: Congruence in the similarity of invertebrate assemblages. Ecol. Indic. 2018; 85 :85–92

Arslan N, Sular A, Kalyoncu H , Marcan D, Bariᶊik B, Odabaᶊi DA. The use of WBMP and ASPT indices for evaluation of water quality according to Macroinvertebrates in Küḉük Mendares River. Biologia. 2016. 71(1):49-57

Rodriguez P, Reynoldson TB. The pollution biology of aquatic oligocheates. Springer Science and Business. Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York. 2011.ISBN 978-94-007-1718-3, 270 pp.

Jaweir HJ. A new records of three tubificid species (Annelida: Oligochaeta) from Al-Hawieza marsh. Iraq . Mesopot. J. Mar. Sci. 2011;26(2):114-121.

Jaweir HJ. Checklist of aquatic oligochaete species in Tigris-Euphrates rivers basin. Baghdad J Sci. 2014; 11(3):1397-1404

Ali LA, Latef BA. A study of invertebrate communities in Lesser Zab River /Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Zanco j. Pure Appl. Sci. 2017; 29(1):54-64.

Jaweir HJ, Alwan AM .Sludge worms species (Oligochaeta : Naididae : Tubificinae) from different aquatic habitat in Baghdad/ Iraq. Baghdad J Sci.. 2013;10(2): 269-281.

Jaweir HJ , Salman MD. Study of Naidid worms associated with two species of aquatic plants in River Tigris inside Baghdad City/Iraq. Baghdad Sci. J. 2014;11(3).

Jaweir HJ, Al-Sarai MH. The aquatic annelid community in Lake Al-Delmage / Iraq. Biologia. 2016; 71(1):1-6

Nashaat MR, Rahi AG, Mohaammad AA , Reassn KH . impact of Al-Rasheed Power Plant effluents on biodiversity of benthic fauna in Tigris River , southern Baghdad .Ibn-Al-Haitham J. Pure Appl. Sci.2017;30(1).

Jaweir HJ , Sebtie HA, Al-Mukhtar EA. Aquatic Oligochaetes of Iraq’s Southern Marshes Baghdad J Sci. 2012; 9(3): 472-480.

Brinkhurst RO, Jamieson BGM. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the World. Univ. of Toronto Press, Canada. 1971.860pp.

Timm T. A guide to the freshwater Oligochaeta and Polychaeta of North and Central Europe. Lauterborina. 2009. 66:1-235.

Goodnight CJ, Whitley LS. Oligochaetes as indicators of pollution .Proc.Am.waste conf. Purdue. Univ,15 th . 1960.139-42.

Parele EA, Astapenok EB. Tubificids (Oligochaeta :Tubificidae) indicators of water body quality. Latv.PSR.Zinat.Akad.Vest. 1975; 9:44-46.

Slepukhina TD. Comparison of different methods of water quality evaluation by means of oligochaetes. InAquatic Oligochaeta 1984 (pp. 183-186). Springer, Dordrecht.

Lafont M. Oligocheate communities as a descriptors of pollution in the fine sediments of rivers. Hydrobiologia. 1984; 115:127-129.

Rosso A, Lafont M, Exinger E. Impact of heavy metals on benthic oligochaete communities in River III and its tributaries. Water.Sci.Techno. 1994; 29:241-248.