Main Article Content
Groundwater quality investigation has been carried out in the western part of Iraq (west longitude '40°40). The physicochemical analyses of 64 groundwater samples collected from seven aquifers were used in the determination of groundwater characterization and assessment. The concept of spatial hydrochemical bi-model was prepared for quantitative and qualitative interpretation. Hydrogeochemical data referred that the groundwater is of meteoric origin and has processes responsible for observed brackishness. The geochemical facies of the groundwater reveal that none of the anions and cations pairs exceed 50% and there are practically mixtures of multi-water types (such as Ca–Mg–Cl–HCO3 and Na+K–SO4–Cl water type) as dominant types. The hydrogeochemical evolution indicates that the groundwater is mainly controlled by the leaching and dissolution process of carbonate minerals. Increasing salt content is observed at different static water levels (groundwater flow) confirming mixing cases with multi water sources. Anthropogenic activities do not have a significant alteration in the geochemical nature of groundwater in aquifer systems. Most of the groundwater is classified within the category of C3S1 and C2S1 denoting admissible to good quality of water for irrigation in 67% of the total samples. On the other hand, 33% of samples are classified as bad to very bad. The groundwater of most aquifers has precedence for irrigation, agricultural purposes, animal drinking, and good to fair class for natural preserve activities. While the groundwater of Mullusi and Jeed-Rattga aquifers are suggested for human drinking purposes. Also, the groundwater within the hydrogeologic system can be used in low-pressure boilers, mining, construction industry, and unsafe in high-pressure boilers due to the relatively high total hardness (237 to 1456 mg/l). Corrosively ratio indicates that 83 % of exploited groundwater from boreholes is safe for long transport through metallic pipelines.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Tiwari AK, De Maio M, Singh PK, Singh AK. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in a coal mining area, India. Arabian J Geosci. 2016 Mar 8; 9 (3):1–17.
Al Omran MA, Mousa MA, Al Harbi MM, Nadeem EA. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia. Arabian J Geosci. 2018 Feb 21; 11(79): 1-12.
Hussien BM, Rabeea MA, Farhan MM, Muhie B, Ayesh M, Naji H. Characterization and behavior of Hydrogen Sulfide plumes released from active sulfide-tar springs, Hit-Iraq. Atmos Pollut Res [Internet]. 2020;11(5):894–902. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2020.100334
Umamageswari TS, Sarala T, Liviu M. Hydrogeochemical processes in the groundwater environment of Batlagundu block, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu: conventional graphical and multivariate statistical approach. Appl. Water Sci. 2019 Jan 5; 9(14): 2-15.
Mohamed C, Allia Z. Geochemistry and hydrogeochemical process of groundwater in the Souf valley of Low Sepentrional Sahara, Algeriara. AJEST. 2015 Mar 5; 9 (3): 261-273.
Suma CS, Srinivasamoorthy K, Saravanan K, Faizalkhan A, Prakash R, Gopinath S. Geochemical Modeling of Groundwater in Chinnar River Basin: A Source Identification Perspective. Aquatic Procedia. 2015 Mar 17; 4:986 – 992.
Bruce G, Cherry D, Adelana M, Xiang C, Mark R. Using Three-Dimensional Geological Mapping Methods to Inform Sustainable Groundwater Development in a Volcanic Landscape, Victoria. Aust. J. Water Resour. 2011 July 29; 19:1349-1365.
Al Jabbari M, Hassan Q, Imad M. The Water Resources in Euphrates Basin. Unpublished Study, Ministry of Agriculture. 2002. 524 p.
Jassim SZ, Goff JC. Geology of Iraq, Published by Dolin, Prague, and Moravian Museum Brno. Printed in Zech. Repub. 2006. 80-7028-287-8.
Hussien BM. Modeling the Impact of Groundwater Depletion on the Hydrochemical Characteristic of Groundwater within Mullusi Carbonate Aquifer-West Iraq. Environ Earth Sci. 2013 Dec 14; 70: 453-470.
Hussien BM. Hydrogeological Condition within Al-Anbar Governorate. J. of Anbar Univ. for Pure Science. 2010a Mar 10; 4 (3): 97-111.
Hussien BM, Fayyadh AS. Impact of intense exploitation on the groundwater balance and flow within Mullusi aquifer (Arid zone west Iraq). Arabian J Geosci.2011 Dec 30; 6: 2461–2482.
Buday T, Hack J. Report on a geological survey of the western part of the western desert, Iraq Geosurv Int Rep. 1980. No.1000.
Sessakian VK, Mohamed BS. Stratigraphy of the Iraqi western desert. IBGM. 2007. ISSN 1811-4639, Special ISSUE, SCGSM, P51-125.
Hussien BM, Fayyadh AS. Preferable Districts for Groundwater Exploitation Based on Hydrogeologic data of aquifers-west Iraq. JWARP. 2014 Sep 8; 6 (12):1-24.
Hussien BM. Applications of environmental isotopes technique in groundwater recharge within Mullusi carbonate aquifer-West Iraq. Journal of Iraqi desert studies. 2010b May 11; 2(2): 1-12.
Hussien BM. Determination of Lateral Hydraulic Connection of the Regional Aquifers in the Western Desert. Iraq using Hydrochemical and Hydrogeological data. IJS. 2018 Mar 28; 59 (1C): 534-551.
Laboutka M. The hydrogeological tables and data. The basic instructions No. 3, Report No. 8. National Iraqi Murals Company, Baghdad.1974.
USEPA. Intérim Final Guidance on Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data at RCRA Facilities, April 1989.
Nielsen D. The Practical Handbook of Environmental Site Characterization and Ground-water monitoring, 2nd edition, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 1318 pp. 2006.
Plazak D. Differences between water level probes, GW. Monitoring and Reme. 1994 Feb 5 ; 14(1),84.
Rabeea MA, Al-Rawi AS, Mohammad OJ, Hussien BM. The residual effect of fish farms on the water quality of the euphrates river, Iraq. Egypt J Aquat Biol Fish. 2020;24(4):549–61.
Marith CR, James RB, Paul JL. Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2002 May 1; 66(9): 1569-1587.
Helsel D, Hirsch R. Chapter A3, statistical methods in water resources, techniques of water-resources investigations of the USGS, Book 4, Hydrologic analysis, and interpretation. Publication available at .2002 Sep 20.
El Sayed M.H, Abo El-Fadl MM, Shawky HA. Impact of hydrochemical processes on groundwater quality, Wadi Feiran. South Sinai, Egypt. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2012. 6(3):638-654.
Chadha DK. A proposed new diagram for geochemical classification of natural waters and interpretation of chemical data. Hydrogeology Journal. 1999 Oct 1; 7: 431– 439.
Christos PP. A preliminary assessment of hydrogeological features and selected anthropogenic impacts on an alluvial fan aquifer system in Greece. Environ Earth Sci. 2012 Dec 9; 70:439–452.
WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Vol.1, recommendations. World Health Organisation, Geneva. 2006.
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). 1996. South African Water Quality Guidelines – Vol. 1 Domestic Use. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa (DWAF). 1996b. South African Water Quality Guidelines (2nd edn.) Volume 5: Agricultural Use: Livestock Watering. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
Andrea MD, Gary AB. Critical Review and Rethinking of USEPA Secondary Standards for Maintaining Organoleptic Quality of Drinking Water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015 Dec 17; 49(2): 708–721.
Moutaz AA, Yas KA, Weam HK. Groundwater Quality Investigation of the Dammam Unconfined Aquifer, Umaid Area Muthanna Governorate--Iraq. Adv. nat. appl. sci.. 2020 Sept 17;12(5): 10-21.
Lewen MC, King NJ. 1971. Prospect for developing stock water Supplies from wells in northeastern. Car field county, Montana. GS- Water Supply paper 1999-F. US- Government printing office-Washington- 38p. https://doi.org/10.3133/wsp1999F.
Wilcox L. 1955. Classification and use of irrigation waters, US. Department of Agriculture. Cir 969, Washington DC.
Hem, J.D. 1985. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254, 263p.
Matthess G. 1982. The properties of groundwater. Department of Environmental Science. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. New York, 406 p.
Todd DK, Mays L. 2005. Groundwater hydrology, John Wiley and Son, Inc, Toppan company (LTD). New York.
Paolo R, Giuseppe M, Federico GAV. Water intended for human consumption — Part I: Compliance with European water quality standards. June 10; 176 (1–3):1-11.
Stumm W. 1992. Chemistry of the solid-water interface: processes at the mineral-water and particle-water interface in natural systems. Wiley Interscience, New York.
Chadha DK. A proposed new diagram for geochemical classification of natural waters and interpretation of chemical data. Hydrogeol. J. 1999 Oct 1; 7(5):431-439.
Hussien BM, Rabeea MA, Mukhlif HN. Estimation of corrosion and encrustation from groundwater chemistry of the aquifers: A case study of Al Hammad zone. Environ Nanotechnology, Monit Manag [Internet]. 2020;14(June):100334. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2020.100334
Jankowski J, Acworth, RI. Impact of debris-flow deposits on the hydrogeochemical process and the development of dryland salinity in the Yass River catchment, New South Wales. Australia. Hydrogeol J. 1997 Nov 20; 5:71-88.
Altoviski M E. 1962. Handbook of hydrogeology, Gosgeolitzdat, Moscow, USSR, (in Russian) PP. 614.
Golekar RB, Baride MV, Patil SN. Geomedical health hazard due to groundwater quality from Anjani - Jhiri River Basin, Northern Maharashtra, India. Int. Res. J. Earth Sci. 2014 Feb 22; 2 (1), 1-14.
Bouderbala A. Assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for agricultural uses in the Nador Plain, north of Algeria. Water Qual. Expo. Health. 2015 Feb 4; 7: 445–457.
Manish K, Kalpana K, AL. Ramanathan, Rajinder S. A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India. Environ Geol. 2007 Mar 23; 53:553–574.
Bouderbala A, Gharbi BY. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in the intensive agricultural zone of the Upper Cheliff Plain, Algeria. Environ. Earth Sci. 2017 Nov 1; 76: (744): 1-10.