Main Article Content
Hepatitis, a condition of liver’s inflammation that can be self-limiting or, in certain chances, it may lead to liver cancer, fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatitis viruses mainly cause hepatitis in the world. People with hepatitis C have predominant chances to develop diabetes as HCV virus participates in causing type 2 diabetes. HCV virus causes pathogenesis in two ways: it either directly destroys the β cells of pancreas or contributes to the specific autoimmunity of β cells. The present cross sectional study was done in Wazirabad Tahsil of Gujranwala District to analyze the percentage of patients suffering from hepatitis C who had the risk of diabetes mellitus. For this research work, demographic information and data about any other medical history were collected by using a questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from hospital and real time PCR was performed to measure the viral load and blood sugar was measured by using glucometer. Data were then analyzed by using statistically designed software. A total of 29.33% patients, having hepatitis C, were found to be diabetic in Tehsil Wazirabad. 14.70% male and 38.59% female patients having hepatitis C were diabetic. From results shown that the patients of hepatitis C are at higher risk to develop diabetes, therefore; it is supposed that persons having hepatitis C should regularly visit doctors for routine check-up of diabetes and change their life style to reduce the risk of developing diabetes.
Received 23/5/2019, Accepted 4/5/2020, Published 1/12/2020
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Berta E, Egresi A, Bacsárdi A, Gáspár Z, Lengyel G1, Hagymási K. Hepatitis C virus infection and hepatocarcinogenesis. Orv. Hetil. 2019; 160 (22):846-853.
World Health Organization. Hepatitis C, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact sheets/detail/hepatitis-c; 2018 (accessed 18 July 2018).
Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J. Hepatol. 2014; 61(1):45–57.
Westbrook RH, Dusheiko G. Natural history of hepatitis C. J. Hepatol. 2014; 61(1Suppl):58–68.
Messina JP, Humphreys I, Flaxman A, Brown A, Cooke GS, Pybus OG. Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology 2015; 61(1):77–87.
Lange CM, Jacobson IM, Rice CM, Zeuzem S. Emerging therapies for the treatment of hepatitis C. EMBO Mol. Med. 2014; 6(1): 4–15.
Simmonds P, Becher P, Bukh J, Gould EA, Meyers G, Monath T, et al. Rico-Hesse R, Smith DB, Stapleton JT. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Flaviviridae. J Gen Virol. 2017; 98(1):2-3.
Cho NH. Q&A: Five questions on the 2015 IDF diabetes atlas. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2016; 115:157–9.
Diabetes Research & Wellness Foundation (DRWF). 2016. www.diabeteswellness.net.
Vanni E, Bugianesi E, Saracco G. Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by viral eradication in chronic hepatitis C: myth or reality?. Digestive and Liver Disease. 2016 Feb 1;48(2):105-11.
Negro F. Facts and fictions of HCV and comorbidities: steatosis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. J. Hepatol. 2014; 61(1suppl):69–78.
Alipourfard I, Datukishvili N, Mikeladze D. TNF alpha Downregulation modifies insulin receptor Substrate 1 (IRS-1) in Metabolic Signaling of Diabetic Insulin-Resistant Hepatocytes. Mediators. Inflamm. 2019: 3560819.
Kawaguchi Y, Mizuta T. Interaction between hepatitis C virus and metabolic factors. World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(11):2888-2901.
Lemoine M, Chevaliez S, Bastard JP, Fartoux L, Chazouillères O, Capeau J et al. Association betweenIL28Bpolymorphism, TNF and biomarkers of insulin resistance inchronic hepatitis C-related insulin resistance. J. Viral. Hepat. 2015; 22(11):890-6.
Peta V, Torti C, Milic N, Focà A, Abenavoli L. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis Cinfection and therapeutic profile. World. J. Hepatol. 2015; 7(1):44-52.
Bernsmeier C, Calabrese D, Heim MH, Duong HT. Hepatitis C virus dysregulates glucose homeostasis by a dual mechanism involving induction of PGC1 and dephosphorylation of FoxO1. J. Viral. Hepat. 2014; 21(1):9-18.
Hammerstad SS, Grock SF, Lee HJ, Hasham A, Sundaram N, Tomer Y. Diabetes and Hepatitis C: A Two-Way Association. Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne). 2015; 6:134.
Laurito MP, Silva GF, Cheinquer H, Sharma R, Verna E, Parise ER. Does insulin resistance impair the virological response to peginterferon/ribavirin in chronic hepatitis c genotype 3 patients? Arq. Gastroenterol. 2018; 55 (2):179-183.