Measurement of some Air Pollutantsin Printing Units and Copy Centers Within Baghdad City

Main Article Content

Zainab nassr abdulateef
Adel H. Talib
Zainab A.

Abstract

Emissions of particulate matter from nanopapers as well as inks and organic solvents during the printing operationand copying machines constitute a threat to human health, especially with long time exposure in closed working environments. The present study was conducted in some printing houses and copying centers of Baghdad city during February and April  .The studyproved the occurrence of an air pollution problem concerning lead and zinc contents in all the study sites. The levels of Pb, Zn and Cu were collected by low volume sampler from the air of the study sites then filter papers digested and determined the heavy metals by flame atomic spectrophotometer. Particulate matter was measured by Aerocet, Microtector  meter device was used to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds . The highest concentrations of lead and zinc were recorded in the printing houses air (2.75μg/m3) and (51.95μg/m3) respectively. In contrast,copper concentration in the copying offices air recorded a significantly higher value (0.65μg/m3) (P>0.05) as compared to that in printing houses. Fine particulate matter(PM2.5)(particles diameter < 2.5 μm) hasrecorded the highest concentration (44.50μg/m3) in printing houses, followed by the highest concentrations of inhalable coarse particulate matter (PM10)  (particles with diameter  of 2.5 to 10 μm)  and total suspended particulates (TSP)(the total of solid particles) (477.66 and 667.00μg/m3) respectively in printing houses. The results obviously showed the highest concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) (6.13 ppm) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (21.88 ppm) in  printing houses, while nitrogen dioxide (NO2) recorded its highest concentration (1.44 ppm) in copy centers. Lead, zinc, copper, PM2.5, PM10 and TSP concentrations exceeded the permissble levels in all study sites converselywith the levels of carbon monoxide , nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide(SO2) and volatile organic compounds that were within permissible air quality standards.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
abdulateef Z nassr, Talib AH, Ali ZA. Measurement of some Air Pollutantsin Printing Units and Copy Centers Within Baghdad City. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2021Mar.30 [cited 2021Apr.13];18(1(Suppl.):0687. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/3663
Section
article

References

Karimi A, Eslamizad S, Mostafaee M, Momeni Z. Restrictive Pattern of Pulmonary Symptoms among Photocopy and Printing Workers: A Retrospective Cohort Study. J. Res. Health. Sci. 2016; 16(2):81-84 .

Awodele O, Akindele AJ, Adebowale GO, Adeyemi OO. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Hematological and Oxidative Stress Levels in Commercial Photocopier Operators in Lagos, Nigeria. Ghana. Med.J . 2015; 49(1):37-43.

Pirela SV, Martin J, Bello D, Demokritou P. Nanoparticle exposures from nano-enabled toner-based printing equipment and human health: state of science and future research needs. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2017; 47(8): 683-709 .

Morawska L, He C, Johnson G, Jayaratne R, Salthammer T, Wang H, et al. . An investigation into the characteristics and formation mechanisms of particles originating from the operation of laser printers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009 ; 43(4): 1015–1022.

Elango N, Kasi V, Vembhu B, Poornima J. Chronic exposure to emissions from photocopiers in copy shops causes oxidative stress and systematic inflammation among photocopier operators in India. Environ. Health. 2013; 12:78.Available from:

https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-069X-12-78 DOI: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-78 .

Pirela S, Molina R, Watson C, Cohen JM, Bello D, Demokritou P. et al. Effects of copy center particles on the lungs: A toxicological characterization using a Balb/c mice model. Inhal.Toxicol. 2013; 25(9): 498–508.

Hassan BK, Naoum K F, Abdul Razzaq S. The effect of inorganic lead on the proportion of corporphyrin in the urine of workers who are exposed to lead in a printing house. AL-Taqani. J. 2007; 20 (1): 76-83.

- Łasińska A. Assessment of the Possibility of Identification of Black Toners on Printouts in Lexmark Printers Using SEM Method.J. Microsc. Ultrastruct. 2018; 6(3): 145–159.

- Kitamura H, Ogami A, Myojo T, Oyabu T, Ikegami K, Hasegawa M, et al. Health Effects of Toner Exposure Among Japanese Toner-Handling Workers: A 10-Year Prospective Cohort Study.J. UOEH. 2019; 41(1):1-14.

Environmental Protection Agency. Innovative Clean Technologies Case Study Second Year Project Report.Reducing Heavy Metals Content in Offset Printing Inks by Roger Telschow. Silver spring, USA. 1994; p. 117-125.

Jarup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 2003; 68(1): 167-182.

Nezis I, Biskos G, Eleftheriadis K, Kalantzi O. Particulate matter and health effects in offices - A review.Build. Environ. 2019; 156(1) :62-73.

Getzlaff M, Leifels M, Weber P, Kokcam‑Demir Ü, Janiak Ch. Nanoparticles in toner material. SN. Appl. Sci. 2019; 1(5): 475-489.Avilable from: https://DOI.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0501-9

Kasi V, Elango N, Ananth S, Vembhu B. Occupational exposure to photocopiers and their toners cause genotoxicity. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2018; 37(2):205-217 .

Martin J, Bello D, Bunker K, Shafer M, Christiani D, Woskie S, et al. Occupational exposure to nanoparticles at commercial photocopy centers. J. Hazard. Mater. 2015; 298(1):351-360.

Kagi N, Fujii S, Horiba Y, Namiki N, Ohtani Y, Emi H, et al. Indoor air quality for chemical and ultrafine particle contaminants from printers . Build. Environ. 2007; 42((5: 1949-1954 .

Betha R, Selvam V, Blake D, Balasubramanian R. Emission characteristics of ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds in a commercial printing center. J. Air. Waste.Manag. Assoc.2011; 61)11( (1093-1101) .

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes1-108. 2013: Retrieved from http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ Classifications Alpha Order .pdf.

U.S.Environmental Protection Agency. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 30 July 2014, Available from :

http://ww w.epa.gov/iaq/voc2.html.

Kane EV, Newton R. Benzene and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a review and meta-analysis of the literture. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010; 34(1):7-12 .

International Programme on Chemical Safety. Inorganic lead. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (Environmental Health Criteria 165. 1995. Available from :http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc165.htm).

HaswellSJ.Atomic Absorption spectrometry .Theory, Design and Application. 5th ed. The University of Hull: Elsevier; c1991. p.420-422.

Statistical Analysis System. User's Guide. Statistical version 9.1th (ed). SAS.Inst. Inc. Cary. NC, USA; 2012 . Chapter 17,The ANOVA Procedure; p.422-480 .

World Health Organization. WHO Expert Consultation: Available evidence for the future update of the WHO Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGS) .Meeting report, Bonn, Germany. 29 September_1 October 2015 . Available from :

http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0013/301720/Evidence-future-update-AQGs-mtg-report-Bonn-sept-oct-15.pdf

European Printing Ink Association. Environmental impact of printing inks .Information note. 2013 Mar ; p 12. Available from:

http://www.eupia.Org/uploads/tx_edm/20130305_EuPIA_Environment_Impact_of_ Printing_Inks.pdf

Martin J, Demokritou P, Woskie S, Bello D. Indoor Air Quality in Photocopy Centers, Nanoparticle Exposures at Photocopy Workstations, and the Need for Exposure Controls.Ann.Work. Expo. Health. 2017; 61(1):110-122.

Abdulateef ZN. Effect of some air pollutants emitted from printing units and copy centers environment on workers’ health in Baghdad City-Iraq. MSc thesis: University of Baghdad ; 2016.

Mortaji N, Olya ME, Ataeefard M. Detection, Characterisation and Determination of Indoor Organic air Pollutants and Fine Particles Produced by Laser Printers. Orient. J. Chem. 2018; 34(4): 1968-1977.

Jasim IM, Al-kubaisi AA, Al- Obaidy AM. Test the efficiency of some plants in the tolerant of air pollution within the city of Baghdad. Iraq. Baghdad. Sci. J. 2018; 15(1): 9-15 .

Kowalska J, Szewczyńska M, Pośniak M. Measurements of chlorinated volatile organic compounds emitted from office printers and photocopiers. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 2015; 22(7): 5241-5252.

Han KH, Zhang JS, Wargocki P, Knudsen HN. Model-based approach to account for the variation of primary VOC emissions over time in the identification of indoor VOC sources. Build. Environ. 2012; 57: 403–416. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.06.011

Król S, Zabiegała B, Namieśnik J. Monitoring and analytics of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor air. Anal .Bioanal. Chem. 2011; 400(6): 1751–1769.