Assessment of Air Pollution around Durra Refinery (Baghdad) from Emission NO2 Gas at April Monthof Air Pollution around Durra Refinery (Baghdad) from Emission NO2 Gas at April Month

Main Article Content

Abbas M. Anad
Ahmed F. Hassoon
Monim. H. Al- Jiboori


Nitrogen dioxide NO2 is one of the most dangerous contaminant in the air, its toxic gas that cause disturbing respiratory effects, most of it emitted from industrial sources especially from the stack of power plants and oil refineries. In this study Gaussian equations modelled by Matlab program to state the effect of pollutant NO2 gas on area around Durra refinery, this program also evaluate some elements such as wind and stability and its effect on stacks height. Data used in this study is the amount of fuel oil and fuel gas burn inside refinery at a year 2017. Hourly April month data chosen as a case study because it’s unsteady month. After evaluate emission rate of the all fuel and calculate exit velocity from stack (consider all refinery unit is a point), effective height resulted. Effective height is test with other atmospheric element and with stability, and there is direct relation with unstable turner classes. After Gaussian model implemented results show that most pollutant area from pollutant of NO2 is Al-Jadriyah and Al-Karada area, this area is about 3-5 kilometer from the refinery point. The wind direction domain is from the south to south-east, thus most flow is to north, north-west and the pollutant level of NO2 is over the national ambient air quality standard in this area.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Anad AM, Hassoon AF, Al- Jiboori MH. Assessment of Air Pollution around Durra Refinery (Baghdad) from Emission NO2 Gas at April Monthof Air Pollution around Durra Refinery (Baghdad) from Emission NO2 Gas at April Month. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2022Jun.1 [cited 2022Jun.26];19(3):0515. Available from:


Santos LGR, Afshari A, Norford LK, Mao J. Evaluating approaches for district-wide energy model calibration considering the Urban Heat Island effect. Applied Energy. Elsevier; 2018;215: 31–40.

Van Thielen S, Turcanu C, Camps J, Keppens R. Optimizing the calculation grid for atmospheric dispersion modelling. Journal of environmental radioactivity [Internet]. England; 2015;142: 103–112. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.12.014

Zhu Z, Chen B, Qiu S, Wang R, Wang Y, Ma L, et al. A data-driven approach for optimal design of integrated air quality monitoring network in a chemical cluster. Royal Society open science. The Royal Society; 2018;5(9): 180889.

Yuan G, Yang W. Evaluating China’s air pollution control policy with extended AQI Indicator system: Example of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Sustainability. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute; 2019;11(3): 939.

Seifi M, Niazi S, Johnson G, Nodehi V, Yunesian M. Exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of childhood cancers: A population-based study in Tehran, Iran. Science of The Total Environment. Elsevier; 2019;646: 105–110.

Hassoon AF. Assessment of air pollution elements concentrations in Baghdad city from periods (May-December) 2010. International journal of energy and environment. International Energy and Environment Foundation (IEEF); 2015;6(2): 191.

Younes M, Harale A, Musawi M. Process for acid gas treatment and power generation. Google Patents; 2019.

Al-Sultan AA, Jumaah GF, Al-Ani FH. Evaluation of the Dispersion of Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide in the Indoor Café–Case Study. Journal of Ecological Engineering. 2019;20(4).

Hassoon AF, Al-Jiboori MH, Anad AM. Simulation effect of stability classes on SO2 concentration in dura refinery and Neighboring regions. Al-Mustansiriyah. J. Sci. 2019;30(3): 1–8.

Oil M of. Burned fuel for all processes of production. 2017.

SHUBBAR RMJ. Numerical Simulation of air pollutants using CALPUFF model at an urban area in Baghdad-Iraq. Pukyong National University; 2017.

Hassoon AF. Determine Wind Frequency Distributions Through the Surface Layer of Baghdad City. Engineering and Technology Journal. University of Technology; 2016;34(2 Part (B) Scientific).

Gelaro R, McCarty W, Suárez MJ, Todling R, Molod A, Takacs L, et al. The modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications, version 2 (MERRA-2). Journal of climate. 2017;30(14): 5419–5454.

Hafezalkotob A, Hafezalkotob A, Liao H, Herrera F. An overview of MULTIMOORA for multi-criteria decision-making: Theory, developments, applications, and challenges. Information Fusion. Elsevier; 2019;51: 145–177.

Turner DB. Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling. CRC press; 1994.

Haugen D. Lectures on air pollution and environmental impact analyses. Springer; 2015.

Gronwald F, Chang S-Y. Evaluation of the Precision and Accuracy of Multiple Air Dispersion Models. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2018;6(1): 1–11.

Essa KSM, Embaby M, Etman SM. A notional variation of the wind profile power-law exponent as a function of surface roughness and stability. 2004;

Al Rubai HAG. Mathematical Modeling for Dispersion of Air Pollutants Emitted from Al Daura Oil Refinery Stacks. A Master thesis, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad. 1999;

Gzar HA, Kseer KM. Pollutants emission and dispersion from flares: A gaussian case–study in Iraq. Al-Nahrain Journal of Science. 2009;12(4): 38–57.

Pirouzmand A, Dehghani P, Hadad K, Nematollahi M. Dose assessment of radionuclides dispersion from Bushehr nuclear power plant stack under normal operation and accident conditions. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Elsevier; 2015;40(44): 15198–15205.

Caulton DR, Li Q, Bou-Zeid E, Fitts JP, Golston LM, Pan D, et al. Quantifying uncertainties from mobile-laboratory-derived emissions of well pads using inverse Gaussian methods. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Copernicus GmbH; 2018;18(20): 15145–15168.

Wang X, Wang K, Su L. Contribution of atmospheric diffusion conditions to the recent improvement in air quality in China. Scientific reports. Nature Publishing Group; 2016;6(1): 1–11.

Brusca S, Famoso F, Lanzafame R, Mauro S, Garrano AMC, Monforte P. Theoretical and experimental study of Gaussian Plume model in small scale system. Energy Procedia. Elsevier; 2016;101: 58–65.