Main Article Content
The current study deals with the performance of constructed wetland (CW) incorporating a microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. The whole unit is referred to as CW-MFC. This technique involves two treatments; the first is an aerobic treatment which occurs in the upper layer of the system (cathode section) and the second is anaerobic biological treatment in the lower layer of the system (anode section). Two types of electrode material were tested; stainless steel and graphite. Three configurations for electrodes arrangement CW-MFC were used. In the first unit of CW-MFC, the anode was graphite plate (GPa) and cathode was also graphite plate (GPc), in the second CW-MFC unit, the anode was stainless steel mesh (SSMa) and the cathode was a couple of stainless steel plain (SSPc). The anode in the third CW-MFC unit was stainless steel mesh (SSMa) and the cathode was graphite plate (GPc). It was found that the maximum performance for electricity generation (9 mW/m3) was obtained in the unit with stainless steel mesh as anode and graphite plate as cathode. After 10 days of operation, the best result for COD removal (70%) was obtained in the unit with stainless steel mesh as anode and stainless steel plain as cathode. The effect of temperature was also investigated. The performance of unit operation for electricity generation was tested at three values of temperature; 30, 35 and 40oC. The best result was obtained at 40oC, at which the current density obtained was 80 mA/m3. A culture of Algae could grow in the unit in order to supply the cathodic region with oxygen.
Received 9/9/2019, Accepted 9/2/2020, Published Online First 6/12/2020
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Parkash A. Microbial fuel cells: a source of bioenergy. J Microb Biochem Technol. 2016; 8: 247–255.
Rismani-Yazdi H, Carver S M, Christy A D, Tuovinen O H. Cathodic limitations in microbial fuel cells: an overview. J Power Sources. 2008; 180: 683–694.
Santoro C, Arbizzani C, Erable B, Ieropoulos I. Microbial fuel cells: from fundamentals to applications. A review. J Power Sources. 2017; 356: 225-244.
Wang H, Luo H, Fallgren P H, Jin S, Ren Z J. Bioelectrochemical system platform for sustainable environmental remediation and energy generation. Biotechnol Adv. 2015; 33:317–34.
Li Y, Wu Y, Liu B, Luan H, Vadas T, Guo W, et al. Self-sustained reduction of multiple metals in a microbial fuel cell–microbial electrolysis cell hybrid system. Bioresour Technol. 2015; 192:238–46.
Dong Y, Feng Y, Qu Y, Du Y, Zhou X, Liu J. A combined system of microbial fuel cell and intermittently aerated biological filter for energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:18070.
Myung J, Yang W, Saikaly P, Logan B E. Copper current collectors reduce long-term fouling of air cathodes in microbial fuel cells. Environ Sci: Water Res Technol. 2018; 4:513–9.
Boets P, Michels E, Meers E, Lock K, Tack M G, Goethals P L M. Integrated constructed wetlands (ICW): ecological development in constructed wetlands for manure treatment. Wetlands. 2011; 31: 763-771.
Luo H, Jenking J, Ren Z. Concurrent desalination and hydrogen generation using microbial electrolysis and desalination cells. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011; 45: 340-344.
Jung S, Regan J M. Comparison of anode bacterial communities and performance in microbial fuel cells with different electron donors. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007; 77: 393-402.
Logan B, Rabaey K. Conversion of Wastes into Bioelectricity and Chemicals by Using Microbial Electrochemical Technologies. Science. 2012; 337: 686-690.
Mehdinia A, Ziaei E, Jabbari A. Facile microwave-assisted synthesized reduced rapheme oxide/tin oxide nanocomposite and using as anode material of microbial fuel cell to improve power generation. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2014; 39:10724–30.
Kumar G G, Hashmi S, Karthikeyan C, GhavamiNejad A, Vatankhah- Varnoosfaderani M, Stadler F J. Graphene oxide/carbon nanotube composite hydrogels-versatile materials for microbial fuel cell applications. Macromol Rapid Commun. 2014; 35:1861-1865.
Srivastava P, Yadav A K, Mishra B K. The effects of microbial fuel cell integration into constructed wetland on the performance of constructed wetland. Bioresour Technol. 2015; 195: 223-230.
Oon Y, Ong S, Ho L, Won Y, Dahalan F A, Oon Y, et al. Synergistic effect of up-flow constructed wetland and microbial fuel cell for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Bioresour Technol 2016; 203: 190-197.
Tang C, Zhao Y, Kang C, Yang Y, Morgan D, Xu L. Towards concurrent pollutants removal and high energy harvesting in a pilot-scale CW-MFC: Insight into the cathode conditions and electrodes connection. Chem. Eng. J. 2019; 373: 150-160.
Wang X, Tian Y, Liu H, Zhao X, Peng S. Optimizing the performance of organics and nutrient removal in constructed wetland- microbial fuel cell systems. Sci. Total Environ. 2019; 653: 860-871.
Mohammed A K, Ali S A, Ali I F. Using locally Isolated Chlorella vulgaris in Wastewater Treatment. Eng. &Tech. Journal. 2016; 34(4), Part (A): 762-768.
Reddy C N, Kakarla R, Min B. Algal Biocathodes. 2019; 525-547.
Song H, Zhang S, Long X, Yang X, Li H, Xiang W. Optimization of bioelectricity generation in constructed wetland-coupled microbial fuel cell systems. Water Journal. 2017; 9(185):1-13.
Khater D, El-khatib K M, Hazaa M, Hassan R Y A. Activated Sludge-based Microbial Fuel Cell for Bio-electricity Generation. Bas. & Environ. Sci. 2015; 2: 63-73.
Pocaznoi D, Calmet A, Etcheverry L, Erable B, Bergel A. Stainless steel is a promising electrode material for anodes of microbial fuel cells. Energy Environ. Sci. 2012; 5(11): 9645-9652.
Firas Khaled. Contribution to electrical valorization of microbial fuel cells, PhD thesis, L’Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon. 2016.
Del Campo G, Lobato J, Cañizares P, Rodrigo M, Fernandez M F. Short-term effects of temperature and COD in a microbial fuel cell. Appl. Energy. 2013; 101: 213–217.
Martin E, Savadogo O, Guiot S R, Tartakovsky B. The influence of operational conditions on the performance of a microbial fuel cell seeded with mesophilic anaerobic sludge. Biochem. Eng. J. 2010; 51(3): 132–139.
Li M, Zhou M, Tian X, Tan C, McDaniel T C, Hassett D J, et al. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) power performance improvement through enhanced microbial electrogenicity. Biotechnol. Adv. 2018; 36: 1316-1327.