Main Article Content
Watermelon is known to be infested by multiple insect pests both simultaneously and in sequence. Interactions by pests have been shown to have positive or negative, additive or non additive, compensatory or over compensatory effects on yields. Hardly has this sort of relationship been defined for watermelon vis-à-vis insect herbivores. A 2-year, 2-season (4 trials) field experiments were laid in the Research Farm of Federal University Wukari, to investigate the interactive effects of key insect pests of watermelon on fruit yield of Watermelon in 2016 and 2017 using natural infestations. The relationship between the dominant insect pests and fruit yield were determined by correlation (r) and linear regression (simple and multiple) analyses. Multimodel inference was used to define the predictor that impacted on fruit yield the most. Results indicated that, each pest had highly negative and significant (p < 0.05) impact on yield (range of r = -0.78 to -0.92), and that the coefficient of determination (R2) values (which were indicative of the effect of pests or their complexes on yield) did not rise on addition of interaction terms. This reveals a non additive negative impact of insect interactions on the fruit yield of watermelon. This may be due to among others; competition by the pest, phenology, plant defenses or changes in nutritional content of the plant. The need to therefore employ discriminate analysis to ascertain the contribution of each pest to yield loss when multiple pest infest a crop is thus highlighted.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Vesna G, Laura GAR, Barbara E, Gerrard M, Adrien R, Ricardo B. Interactive effects of pests increase yield. Ecol Evol [Internet] 2016 Jan [Cited 2017 Dec 12]; 6(7): 2149 – 57. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831447/ DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2003
Kranz J. Interactions in pest complexes and their effects on yield. J Plant Dis and Protec. 2005 Apr.; 112(4): 366 – 85.
Oerke EC. Crop losses to pests. J Agric Sci [Internet]. 2006 Feb [Cited 2018 Jul 17]; 144: 31 – 43. Available from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science/article/crop-losses-to pests/AD61661AD6D503577B3E73F2787FE7B2 DOI: 10.1017/50021859605005708
Irwin RE, Brody AK. Additive effects of herbivory, nectar robbing and seed predation on male and female fitness estimates of the host plant Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecol [Internet]. 2011 Jul [Cited 2019 Oct 13]; 166: 681– 92. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21274574 DOI: 10.1007/s00442-010-1898-4
Stephens AEA, Srivastava DS, Myers JH. Strength in numbers? Effects of multiple natural enemy Species on plant performance. Proc Biol Sci [Internet]. 2013 Jul [Cited 2019 Jul 25]; 280: 1760 – 69. Available from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2756
Thibault N, Claudine B, Hubert D, Thiband M, Emilie D, Serge S, et al. Protected cultivation of vegetable crops in sub-Saharan Africa: limits and prospects for smallholders. A review. Agron Sustain Dev. [Internet]. 2017 Oct [Cited 2019 Oct 14]; Available from: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%sFs13593-017-0460-8.pdf DOI: 10.1007/s13593-017-0460-8
Cerda R, Avelino J, Gary C, Tixier P, Lechevallier E, Allinne C. Primary and sandy yield losses caused by pests and diseases: assessment and modeling in Coffee. PLos One [Internet]. 2017 Jan [Cited 2018 Apr 11]; 12(1): 1-17. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5207401/pdf/pone.0169133.pdf DOI: 01.1371/journal.pone.0169133
Okrikata E, Ogunwolu EO. Farmers’ perceptions on arthropod pests of watermelon and their management practices in the Nigerian southern guinea savanna. Int J Agric Res [Internet]. 2017 Sept [Cited 2017 Dec]; 12(4): 146 – 55. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijar.2017.146.155 DOI: 10.3923/ijar.2017.146.155
Okrikata E, Ogunwolu EO, Ukwela MU. Diversity, spatial and temporal distribution of above-ground arthropods associated with watermelon in the Nigerian southern guinea savanna. J Insect Biodivers Syt . 2019a Mar [Cited 2019 Mar 27]; 5(1): 11–32. Available from: http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-36-29780-en.html
Alao FO, Adebayo TA. Comparative efficacy of Tephrosia vogelii and Moringa oleifera against insect pests of watermelon. ILNS [Internet]. 2015 Mar [Cited 2017 Aug 19]; 35: 71-8. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/27974254
Brown JF, Keane P. Assessment of disease and effects on yield. In: Brown JF, Ogle HJ, editors. Plant pathogens and plant diseases [Internet]. Australasian Plant Pathology Society. 1997 [Cited 2018 Nov 2]; Chapter 20. pp. 35–329. Available from: https://www.appsnet.org/Publications/Brown_Ogle/20%20Disease%20assessment%20(JFB&PJK).pdf
Savary S, Teng PS,Willocquet L, Nutter Jr, FW. Quantification and modeling of crop losses: a review of purposes. Ann Rev Phytopath [Internet]. 2006 Sept [Cited 2019 July 8]; 44: 89–112. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16480337 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.phyto.44.070505.143342
Okrikata E, Yusuf OA. Diversity and abundance of insects in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. IBBJ. 2017 Jan; 2(4): 156–166.
Okrikata E, Ogunwolu EO. Determination of the critical period of cyper-diforce® treatment against arthropod fauna and productivity of watermelon. Iraqi J Sci [Internet]. 2019 Sept [Cited 2019 Oct 1]; 60(9): 1904 - 19. Available from: http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1023 DOI: 10.24996/ijs.2019.60.9.3
Esker PD, Savary S, McRoberts N. Crop loss analysis and global food supply: focusing now on required harvests. CAB Rev [Internet]. 2012 Sept [Cited 2019 Sept 15]; 7(52) 1-13. Available from: http://www.cabi.org/cabreviews DOI: 10.1079/PAVSNNR20127052
Whish JPM, Herrmann NI, White NA, Moore AD, Kriticos DJ. Integrating pest population models with biophysical crop models to better represent the farming system. Environ Model Software [Internet] 2015 Oct [Cited 2017 Jul 25]; 72: 418–25. Available from: https://www.elsevier.com/locate/envsoft DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.10.010
Kirmse S, Chaboo CS. Polyphagy and florivory prevail in a leaf-beetle community (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inhabiting the canopy of a tropical lowland forest in southern Venezuela. J Nat His [Internet] 2018 Jan [cited 2019 Feb 19]; 52(41-42): 1313-49. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00222933.2018.1548666?scroll=top&needAccess=true DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2018.154.8666
Konstantinov AS, Prathapan KD, Venci FV. Hiding in plain sight: leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) use feeding damage as a masquerade decoy. Biol J Lin Soc [Internet]. 2018 Jan [cited 2019 Mar 24]; 123(2): 311-20. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/biolinnean/article/123/2/311/4810465 DOI: 10.1093/biolinnean/blx149
Nadein K, Betz O. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini). J Expt Biol. 2016 Jul; 219: 2015–27.
Alao FO, Adebayo TA, Olaniran OA. Population density of insect pests associated with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) in southern guinea savanna zone, Ogbomoso. J Entomol Zool Stud [Internet]. 2016 Jun [Cited 2017 Aug 15]; 4(4): 257 – 60. Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8e4e/a77eafa330b7a59009cb517c6195b1e28d8b.pdf
Radhika P. Influence of weather on the seasonal incidence of insect pests on groundnut in the scarce rainfall zone of Andhra Pradesh. Adv Res J Crop Improv [Internet]. 2013 Nov [Cited 2018 Apr 5]; 4(2): 123 – 26. Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e2f5/01c91684fad3d705eecb2d4fca26d592ed44.pdf
Dhillon MK, Singh R, Naresh JS, Sharma HC. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: a review of its biology and management. J Insect Sci [Internet]. 2005 Dec [Cited 2017 Aug 13]; 5(40): 1 – 16. Available from: https://insectscience.org/5.40
Okrikata E, Ogunwolu EO, Ukwela MU. Efficiency and economic viability of neem seed oil emulsion and cyper-diforce® insecticides in watermelon production within the Nigerian southern guinea savanna zone. J Crop Protec [Internet]. 2019b Feb [Cited 2019 Mar 3]; 8(1): 81 – 101. Available from: http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-3-27183-en.html
Jörg E. Synoecological studies on interactions in the agoecosystem Winter wheat. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Giessen. Casting Germany. 1987. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_nlinks&ref=000240&pid=S19825676201400010000200068&lng=en
Williams IH. The major insect pests of Oilseed Rape in Europe and their management: an overview. In: Williams I, editor. Biocontrol-based integrated management of Oilseed Rape pests [Internet] Springer, Dordrecht; 2010 [Cited 2018 Nov 3]. p. 1–43. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-3983-5_1 DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-3983-5_1