Synthesis of Bimetallic Au–Pt / TiO2 Catalysts as an Efficient Catalyst for the Photodegradation of Crystal Violet Dye

Main Article Content

Souad Abd Mousa
Sanaa Tareq
Eman A. Muhammed
Mohammed. S. Kadhim

Abstract

     Bimetallic Au –Pt catalysts supporting TiO2 were synthesised using two methods; sol immobilization and impregnation methods. The prepared catalyst underwent a thermal treatment process at 400 C, while the reduction reaction under the same condition was done and the obtained catalysts were identified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It has been found that the prepared catalysts have a dimension around 2.5 nm and the particles have uniform orders leading to high dispersion of platinum molecules .The prepared catalysts have been examined as efficient photocatalysts to degrade the Crystal violet dye under UV-light. The optimum values of Bimetallic Au –Pt catalysts supporting TiO2 have been found (0.05g of the catalyst prepared in sol immobilization method, 0.07 g of the synthesised in impregnation procedure. The impact of pH on the degradation reaction was tested; it has been found that pH 10 is the best media for the reaction. The effect of temperature has been discussed when various temperatures were used, and the heat of photoreaction Ea was estimated from the Arrhenius relationship, it has been concluded that the reaction is independent of temperature as the activation energy was very small (Ea= 22 kJ/ mole). The thermodynamic functions; entropy, enthalpy and the free energy have been figured out. It has been found that the positive values of enthalpy ∆H# refer to endothermic reaction, moreover, it has been demonstrated that the photoreaction is an endergonic one according to the calculated values of the free energy of activation. It has been noticed that when temperature increases, it promotes the production of free radicals, but it has been noticed that exceeding the temperature more than the used range causes reducing the percentage of degradation of crystal violet, the reason is due to the limitation conditions of adsorption process at higher temperature on the surface of the catalyst.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Mousa SA, Tareq S, Muhammed EA, Kadhim MS. Synthesis of Bimetallic Au–Pt / TiO2 Catalysts as an Efficient Catalyst for the Photodegradation of Crystal Violet Dye. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2021Mar.10 [cited 2021Apr.13];18(1):0102. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/4372
Section
article

References

Ciobanu G, Harja M, Diaconu M, Cimpeanu C, Teodorescu R , Bucur D. Crystal violet dye removal from aqueous solution by nanohydroxyapatite. JFAE. 2014 Mar; 12(1):499 - 502.

Roy DC, Biswas SK, Saha AK, Sikdar B, Rahman M, Roy AK, Prodhan ZH, Tang SS. Biodegradation of Crystal Violet dye by bacteria isolated from textile industry effluents. PeerJ. 2018 Jun 21;6:e5015.

Mani S, Bharagava RN. Isolation, screening and biochemical charactization of bacteria capable of crystal dye decolorization. IJAASR. 2017 Jan; 2 (2):70-75.

Selim KA, Abdel-Khalek NA, El-Sayed SM, Abdallah SS. Bioremoval of crystal violet dye from egyption textile effluent. IRJET. 2015 Nov; 2 (8):1038-1043.

Ali HM, Shehata SF, Ramadan KM. Microbiol decolorization and degradation of crystal violet dye by Aspergillus niger. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.2016 Dec;13(12):2917-2926.

Chen CC, Liao HJ, Cheng CY, Yen CY, Chung YC.Biodegradation of crystal violet by pseudomonas putida. Biotechnol. Lett. 2007 Jan 6; 29(3):391-396.

Oguzie EE. Inhibiting effect of crystal violet dye on Aluminum corrosion in acidic and alkaline media. J Chem. Eng. Comm. 2008 Dec; 196(5):591-601.

Laskar N, Kumar U. Adsorption of crystal violet from wastewater by modified bambusa tulda. Journal of civil engineering. 2018 Aug; 22 (8): 2755-2763.

Kusumastuti E, Santosa SJ. Adsorption of crystal violet dye using zeolite a synthesized from coal fly ash. InIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2017 Feb (Vol. 172, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing.

Harja MA, Ciobanu GA, Favier LI, Bulgariu LA, Rusu LĂ. Adsorption of crystal violet dye onto modified ash. Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute from Iaşi. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Section. 2016 Nov;62:27-37.

Singh B, Walia BS, Arora R. Parametric and kinetic study for the adsorption of crystal violet dye by using carbonized eucalyptus. IJCER. 2018 Sep; 8 (9):1-11.

Menkiti MC, Aniagor CO, Agu CM, Ugonabo VI. Effective adsorption of crystal violet dye from an aqueous solution using lignin-rich isolate from elephant grass. Water Conservation Science and Engineering. 2018 Jan 6 https://doi.org/10.1007/s41101-017-0040-4.

Radwan NR, Hagar M, Chaieb K. Adsorption of crystal violet dye on modified bentonites. Asian J Chem. 2016 Aug; 28 (8):1643-1647.

Salh DM, Aziz BK, Faraidoon K. Adsorption of crystal violet on walnut shell from aqueous solution. IJBAS. 2015 Aug; 15(4):4-8.

Dandge R, Ubale M, Rathod S. Adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto the surface of green peas shell. JOAC.2016; 5(4):792-801.

Papp Z. Unmodified and gold-modified semiconductor catalysts for solar light assisted photodegradation of crystal violet. Studia Ubb Chemia LX II. 2017; 1:195-202.

Suhail FS, Mashkour MS, Saeb D. The study on photodegradation of crystal violet by polarographic technique. IJBAS.2015; 15 (3):12-19.

Weyermann C, Kirsch D, Vera CC, Spengler B. Evaluation of the photodegradation of crystal violet upon light exposure by mass spectrometric and spectroscopic methods. J. Forensic Sci.2009; 54 (2): 339-345.

Soliman AM, Elsuccary SA, Ali IM, Ayesh AI. Photocatalytic activity of transition metal ions-loaded activated carbon:Degradation of crystal violet dye under solar radiation. J WATER PROCESS ENG. 2017 June; 17, 245-255.

George P, Dhabarde N, Chowdhury P. Photo-decolorization of crystal violet using MIL-53(Fe). Conference Paper (68th annual session of indian institute of chemical engineers. 27-30 December 2015. Guwahati, India.

Habib MA, Muslim M, Shahadat MT, Islam MN, Ismail IM, Islam TS, et al. Photocatalytic decolorization of crystal violet in aqueous nano-ZnO suspension under visible light irradiation. JNSC .2013; 3: 70.

Oller I, Malato S, Sa´nchez-Pe´rez JA. Combination of advanced oxidation processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination—A review. Sci. Total Environ. 2011; 409(20): 4141–4166.

Magalhães P, Andrade L, Nunes OC, Mendes A. Titanum dioxide photocatlysis: fundamentals and application on photoinactivation. Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 2017; 51(2): 91-129.

Primo A, Corma A, Garcıa H. Titania supported gold nanoparticles as photocatalyst. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011; 13(3): 886–910.

Paola AD, Ikeda S, Marci G, Ohtani B, Palmisano L. Transition metal doped TiO2: physical properties and photocatalytic behavior. Int J Photoenergy. 2001; 3(4):171-176.

Khairy M, Zakaria W. Effect of metal-doping of TiO2 nanoparticles on their photocatalytic activities toward removal of organic dyes. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum. 2014; 23(4):419–426.

Tsang CA, Li K, Zeng Y, Zhao W, Zhang T, Zhan Y, et al. Titanium oxide based photocatalytic materials development and their role of in the air pollutants degradation; overview and forecast. Envir Int. 2019 April; 125: 200-228.

Tareq S, Taufiq Yap YH, Saleh TA, Abdullah AH. Synthesis of bimetallic gold-pallidum loaded on carbon as an efficient catalysts for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol into benzaldehyde. J Mol Liquids. 2018; 271:885-891.

Brunauer S, Emmett PH, Teller E. Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1938; 2 (60):309-319.

Kumar BN, Anjaneyulu Y, Himabindu V. Comparative studies of degradation of dye intermediate (H-acid) using TiO2/UV/H2O2 and photo - Fenton process. J Chem. Pharm. Res.2011; 3(2):718-731.

Aldbea FW, Ibrahim NB, Abdullah MH. Shaiboub RE. Structural and magnatic properties of TbxY32xFe5O12 (0£ × £0.8) thin film prepared via sol-gel method. Journal of sol-gel sci techn.2012; 62.

Cheng H, Selloni A. Energetics and diffusion of intrinsic surface and subsurface defects on anatase TiO2 (101). J. Chem. Phys. 2009; 131(5).

Buchalska M, Kobielusz M, Matuszek A, Pacia M, Wojtyła S, Macyk W. On oxygen activation at rutile- and anatase-TiO2, J.ACS Catalysis. 2015; 5(12):7424-7431.

Reszczynska J, Esteban DA, Gazda M, Zaleska A. Pr-doped TiO2. The effect of metal content on photocatalytic activity. Physicochem Probl MI. 2014; 50: 515-524.

Haijuan L, Haoxi W, Yujuan Z, Xiaolong X, Yongdong J. Synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic Au core-Pt shell concave nanocubes with superior catalytic and electrocatalytic activity. ACS catal. 2013; 3: 2045-2051.

Zhu X, Cho H, Pasupong M, Regalbuto JR. Charge-enhanced dry impregnation: a simple way to improve the preparation of supported metal catalysts. ACS Catal. 2013; 3(4): 625-630.

Lopez N, Janssens TV, Clausen BS, Xu Y, Mavrikakis M, Bligaard T, et al. On the origin of the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles for low-temperature CO oxidation, J Catal. 2004; 223(1): 232-235.

Mohamed E. Characterization of porous solids and powders; surface area, pore size and density by S.Lowell (Quantachrome instruments, Boynton Beach ,(JACS.10 Sept. 2005;127(40)14117.

Lowell S, Shields JE, Thomas MA, Thommes M. Characterization of porous solids and powders: surface area, pore size and density. Springer Science and Business Media; 2012. 16.

Landers J, Gor GY, Neimark AV. Density functional theory methods for characterization of porous materials. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem and Engin Aspects. 2013;437: 3-32.

Gaya UI, Abdullah AH. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants over titanium dioxide: A review of fundamentals, progress and problems. J Photochem Photobio C: Photochem Rev. 2008; 9:1–12.

Komulski M. The significance of the difference in the point zero charge between rutile and anatase. Adv. Colloids Interface. 2002; 99: 255-264.

Gajbhiye SB. Photocatalytic degradation study of methylene blue solutions and its application to dye industry effluent. Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res.. 2012; 2 (3): 1204-1208.