Concentrations and Radiation Hazard Indices of Naturally Radioactive Materials for Flour Samples in Baghdad Markets

Main Article Content

Farah Faris kaddoori
Ban Sabah Hameed
Wijdan Thamer Fzaa

Abstract

In the present work, Uranium (238U), Thorium (232Th) and Potassium (40K) specific activity concentration in (Bq/kg) was measured in five different types for wheat flours that are available in the Iraqi markets. The gamma spectrometry method with an NaI (Tl) detector has been used for radiometric measurements. Calculations of radium equivalent activity, annual effective dose equivalent, external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), representing gamma index and gamma dose rate in all  flour samples were 17.98132 Bq/kg, 0.0100334, 0.04502, 0.04857, 0.06872, 0.125883 and 8.181244 respectively. It is found that the average of specific activity concentration of wheat flour samples for 238U, 232Th and 40K are 7.4564 Bq / kg, 6.27962 Bq / kg and 20.0658 Bq / kg respectively. This study proves that the natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices were lower than the safe.


    Measurements of hazard indices show that the concentrations of these isotopes in all samples are within the allowable limits internationally.


    The Radium Equivalent Activity, Annual Effective Dose Equivalent, External hazard index (Hex), Internal hazard index   (Hin), represented Gamma Index and Gamma Dose Rate are also calculated. All data were measured at the March of 2019.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
kaddoori FF, Hameed BS, Fzaa WT. Concentrations and Radiation Hazard Indices of Naturally Radioactive Materials for Flour Samples in Baghdad Markets. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2021Mar.4];18(3):0649. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/4685
Section
article

References

Khalid HM, Soaad AE , Zina JR. Natural Radioactivity of Soil Samples from the Abu SakhirNajaf (Iraq) by Using Gamma Spectroscopy. ETJ. 2016; 41-48.

Rejah B. Specific Activities of Natural Radionuclides and Annual Effective Dose Due to the Intake of Some Types of Children Powdered Milk Available in Baghdad Markets Baghdad. Baghdad Sci. J. 2017; 14 (3).

Aswood M, Salih A, Al Musawi M. Long-lived gamma-ray measurement in soil samples collected from city central of Al-Diwaniyah, J Phys Conf Ser. 2019; 1234(1).

Scheibel V, Appoloni C, Schechter H. Natural radioactivity traces in South-Brazilian cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2006; 270(1):163–165.

UNSCEAR United Nations Scientific Committee on the effect of Atomic Radiation. Sources, Effect, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation" Report to the general Assembly with Scientific Annexes, Vol 1, United Nations, New York; 2000.

Jibiri N, Okusanya A. Radionuclide contents in food products from domestic and imported sources in Nigeria. J Radiol Prot. 2008; 28:405-413.

Ababneh ZQ, Alyassin AM, Aljarrah KM, Ababneh AM. Measurement of natural and artificial radioactivity in powdered milk consumed in Jordan and estimates of the corresponding annual effective dose. Radiat Prot Dosim .2010; 138(3):278-283.

Desimoni J, Sives F, Errico L, Mastrantonio G, Taylor M A. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Argentinean cow milk. J Food Compost Anal. 2009; 22: 250-253.

El-Gamal H, Maher H., Emran S. Evaluation of natural radioactivity levels in soil and various foodstuffs from Delta Abyan, Yemen. J Radiat Res Appl Sci. 2019; 12(1): 226–233.

Rejah A. Specific Activities and Annual Effective Dose of Natural Radionuclides Due to the Intake of Some Types of Sugar Available in Baghdad Markets. AJPA. 2017; 5(2): 20-23.

Rejah A , Alameer N, Kadim W, Murad S. Estimate Level of Radon Concentration for Drinking Water in Some Regions of Baghdad City. Arab J Sci Eng. 2018; 43 (7): 3831–3835.

Morad A, Mahdi R, Rejah A. Radon Concentration and the Annual Effective Dose in the Soil Samples of the Midland Refineries Company - Doura - Baghdad – Iraq. IJSR. 2017; 6(8): 1513 -1516.

IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency, Measurement of Radionuclides in Food and Environment, a Guidebook, Technical Reports. 1989; 295 (230)

TholkappianM, Chandrasekaran A, Chandramohan N, Harikrishnan N, Ravisankar R. Determination of Radioactivity Levels and Radiation Hazards in Coastal Sediment Samples of Chennai Coast, Tamilnadu, India using Gamma Ray Spectrometry with Statistical Approach. J Radiat Nucl App. 2018; 3(3): 171-182.

Maitham S. Radiation Hazard Index of Common Imported Ceramic Using for Building Materials in Iraq. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2017; 11(10): 94-102.

Ban S, Rajah B, Muter S. Study the Concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in the Samples of Rice and Salt in Baghdad Governorate. ANJS. 2016; 19 (1):104-109.

Sozan T, Lwise G. Determination of specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K for assessment of radiation hazards from Turkish plumicesamples. J Environ Radioact. 2007; 2 (3): 122-130.

UNSCEAR United Nations Scientific Committee on the effect of Atomic Radiation. Source , Effect, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation Report to the general Assembly with Scientific Annexes, United Nations ,New York ; Vol 1, 2013,1(A).

UNSCEAR United Nations Scientific Committee on the effect of Atomic Radiation. Source , Effect, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation Report to the general Assembly with Scientific Annexes, United Nations;2017.

Abojassim A, Al-Gazaly H, Kadhim S. 238U, 232Th and 40K in wheat flour samples of Iraq markets. Ukr. Food J. 2014; 3(3).