The Effect of White Rot Fungus (Ganoderma sp) as Decomposers on Composting Using Combination of Cattle Feces and Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Organic Matter

Main Article Content

Muhammad Irfan Said
Effendi Abustam
Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin
Abdel Razzaq Al Tawaha
Abdel Rahman M. Al Tawaha


In Indonesia, cattle feces (CF) and water hyacinth (WH) plants are abundant but have not been widely revealed. The use of microorganisms as decomposers in the fermentation process has not been widely applied, so researchers are interested in studying further. This study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of CF with WH on composting by applying white-rot fungal (WRF) (Ganoderma sp) microorganism as a decomposer. A number of six types of treatment compared to R1(ratio of CF:WH)(25%:75%)+WRF; R2(ratio of CF:WH)(50%:50%)+WRF; R3(ratio of CF:WH)(75%:25%)+WRF; R4(ratio of CF:WH)(25%:75%) without WRF; R5(ratio of CF:WH)(50%:50%) without WRF; R6(ratio of CF:WH)(25%:75%) without WRF. The results showed that the use of WRF decomposers and organic matter (CF and WH) at different ratios affected the properties of compost such as pH value, C-organic, N-organic, C/N ratio, P2O5 and K2O compounds. The WRF decomposer significantly decreases to the pH value, and the C/N ratio, but increases the value of C-organic, N-organic, P2O5 and K2O. The properties of the compost produced are in accordance with the standards set by the Indonesian National Standard (INS) and the regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia. The WRF was needed to consider as a decomposer in producing compost.  Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that the R1(CF: WH)(25%:75%)+WRF) treatment was the best ratio combination to produce compost using WRF (Ganoderma sp) as a decomposer with the best properties.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Said MI, Abustam E, Sirajuddin SN, Jamila, Tensi, Al Tawaha AR, Al Tawaha ARM. The Effect of White Rot Fungus (Ganoderma sp) as Decomposers on Composting Using Combination of Cattle Feces and Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Organic Matter. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2022 Aug. 1 [cited 2023 Oct. 3];19(4):0775. Available from:


Morari F, Vellidis G, Gay P. Fertilizers, In Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, edited by J O Nriagu, Elsevier, Burlington. 2011, pp727-737.

Akdeniz N. A systematic review of biochar use in animal waste composting. Waste Manage. 2019; 88: 291-300.

Leita L, De-Nobili M, Mondini C, Muhlbachova G, Marchiol L. Influence of inorganic and organic fertilization on soil microbial biomass, metabolic quotient and heavy metal bioavailability. Biol Fert Soils. 1999; 28: 371-376.

Chaudhry AN, Jilani G, Khan MA, Iqbal T. Improved processing of poultry litter to reduce nitrate leaching and enhance its fertilizer quality. Asian J. Chem. 2009; 21: 4997-5003.

Kaur T, Brar B, Dhillon N. Soil organic matter dynamics as affected by long-term use of organic and inorganic fertilizers under maize–wheat cropping system. Nutr.Cycl Agroecosys. 2008; 81:59-69.

Arsanti V. Persepsi masyarakat terhadap lingkungan kandang sapi Di Kelurahan Bener Kecamatan Tegalrejo Yogyakarta. MKG. 2018; 19(1): 63-75.

Neugebauer M, Sołowiej P. The use of green waste to overcome the difficulty in small-scale composting of organic household waste. J. of Clean. Prod. 2017; 156: 865–875.

Pandey PK, Cao W, Biswas S, Vaddella V. A new closed loop heating system for composting of green and food wastes. J. Clean. Prod. 2016; 133: 1252-1259.

Proietti P, Marchini A, Gigliotti G, Regni L, Nasini L, Calisti R. Composting optimization: Integrating cost analysis with the physical-chemical properties of materials to be composted. J. of Clean. Prod. 2016; 137: 1086-1099.

Said MI, Abustam E, Yuliati FN, Mide MZ. Characteristics of feather protein concentrates hydrolyzed using Bacillus subtilis FNCC 0059. OnLine J on Biol. Sci. 2018a; 18(2): 138-146.

He P, Wei S, hao L, Lü F. Aerosolization behavior of prokaryotes and fungi during composting of vegetable waste. Waste Manag. 2019; 89: 103-113.

Hsu SF, Buckley DH. Evidence for the functional significance of diazotroph community structure in soil. Int. Soc. for Microbiol. Eco. J. 2008; 3:124-136.

Philippot L, Andert J, Jones CM, Bru D, Hallin S. Importance of denitrifiers lacking the genes encoding the nitrous oxide reductase for N2O emissions from soil. Global Change Biol. 2011; 17: 1497-1504.

Said MI, Abustam E, Hifizah A. Chemical characteristics of collagen extract from scapula of Bali cattle (os scapula) produced using different extractant. Pak. J. of Nut. 2015; 14(3): 174-179.

Said MI, Asriany A, Sirajuddin SN, Abustam E, Rasyid R. Evaluation of the quality of liquid organic fertilizer from rabbit’s urine waste fermented using local microorganisms as decomposers. Iraqi J. of Agric. Sci. 2018b; 49(6): 990-1003.

Stark CH, Condron LM, O’Callaghan M, Stewart A, Di HJ. Differences in soil enzyme activities, microbial community structure and short-term nitrogen mineralisation resulting from farm management history and organic matter amendments. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2008; 40:1352-1363.

Li X, Liu Y, Song L. Cytological alterations in isolated hepatocytes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to microcystin-LR. Environ. Toxicol. 2001; 16: 517-522.

Herrera N, Herrera C, Ortíz I, Orozco L, Robledo S, Agudelo D, et al. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of three microcystin-LR containing cyanobacterial samples from Antioquia, Colombia. Toxicon. 2018; 154: 50-59.

Stefano S. Microcystins in water and in microalgae. Toxicol. Rep. 2018; 5: 785-792.

Milinković M, Lalević B, Jovičić-Petrović J, Golubović-Ćurguz V, Kljujev I, Raičević V. Biopotential of compost and compost products derived from horticultural waste—Effect on plant growth and plant pathogens' suppression. Process Safety and Environ. Protec. 2019; 121: 299-306.

Ma¨-der P, Fliessbac A, Dubois D, Gunstl L, Fried P. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science. 2002; 296: 1694-1697.

Bending GD, Turner MK, Jones JE. Interactions between crop residue and soil organic matter quality and the functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2002; 34: 1073-1082.

Kummer DA. Bulk pasteurization of mushroom compost. Patents. United States US4233266A. 1987.

Kumar S, Zhang Z, Awasthi MK, Li R. Biological Processing of Solid Waste. CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group, 2019: p.76-78

Gomez KA, Gomez AA. Prosedur Statistik untuk Penelitian Pertanian (Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research). Translated by Sjamsuddin E and Baharsjah J. 2nd.edition. Jhon Wiley and Sons, Inc, Universitas Indonesia Press, Indonesia; 2007: 87

Zhang J, Chen G, Sun H, Zhou S, Zou G. Straw biochar hastens organic matter degradation and produces nutrient-rich compost. Bioresour. Technol. 2016; 200: 876-883.

Mao H, Lv Z, Sun H, Li R, Zhai B, Wang Z, et al. Improvement of biochar and bacterial powder addition on gaseous emission and bacterial community in pig manure compost. Bioresour. Technol. 2018; 258: 195-202.

Chen W, Liao X, Wu Y, Liang JB, Mi J, Huang J, et al. Effects of different types of biochar on methane and ammonia mitigation during layer manure composting. Waste Manag. 2017a; 61: 506-515.

Chen Y, Liu Y, Li Y, Wu Y, Chen Y, Zeng G, et al Influence of biochar on heavy metals and microbial community during composting of river sediment with agricultural wastes. Bioresour. Technol. 2017; 243: 347-355.

Janczak D, Malin´ska K, Czekała W, Cáceres R, Lewicki A, Dach J. Biochar to reduce ammonia emissions in gaseous and liquid phase during composting of poultry manure with wheat straw. Waste Manage. 2017; 66: 36-45.

SNI. Standar Nasional Indonesia. Standarisasi Nasional Indonesia (SNI)/ Indonesian National Standard (INS) Kompos. Badan Standar Nasional, Jakarta; 2004.

Pajares S, Bohannan BJ. Ecology of nitrogen fixing, nitrifying, and denitrifying microorganisms in tropical forest soils. Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 1045.

Wang Q, Awasthi MK, Zhao J, Ren X, Li R, Wang Z, et al. Improvement of pig manure compost lignocellulose degradation, organic matter humification and compost quality with medical stone. Bioresour. Technol. 2017; 243: 771-777.

Wu SH, Shen ZQ, Yang CP, Zhou YX, Li X, Zeng GM, et al. Effects of C/N ratio and bulking agent on speciation of Zn and Cu and enzymatic activity during pig manure composting. Int. Biodeter. Bioderg. 2017; 119: 429-436.

Yu H, Xie B, Khan R, Shen G. The changes in carbon, nitrogen components and humic substances during organic-inorganic aerobic co-composting. Bioresour. Technol. 2019; 271: 228-235.

Kumari S, Das D. Biohythane production from sugarcane bagasse and water hyacinth: a way towards promising green energy production. J. Clean Prod. 2019; 207: 689-701.

Sagar VC, Kumari NA. Sustainable biofuel production from water hyacinth (eicchornia crassipes). Int. J. Eng. Trends. Technol. 2013; 4:4454-4448.

Sindhu R, Binod P, Pandey A, Madhavan A, Alphonsa JA, Vivek N. Water hyacinth a potential source for value addition: an overview. Bioresour. Technol. 2017; 230: 152-162.

Arantes V, Milagres AMF, Filley TR, Goodell, B. Lignocellulosic polysaccharides and lignin degradation by wood decay fungi: the relevance of nonenzymatic Fenton-based reactions. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011; 38: 541-555.

Abustam E, Said MI, Yusuf M. The effect of antioxidant activity of liquid smoke in feed supplement block on meat functional of muscle longissimus dorsi. Proceeding. In International Ruminant Seminar Eco-friendly livestock production for sustainable agriculture. Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, October 24, 2017; IOP Conf. Ser: Earth Environ. Sci,119 012 046, 2018.

Abustam E, Said MI, Yusuf M. Effect of aging time on changes in smoke flour compounds on meatballs and fresh meat of Bali beef. Proceeding. In 1st International Conference of Animal Science and Technology (ICAST). Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia, November 6-7, 2018; IOP Conf. Ser: Earth Environ. Sci. 247: 012026, 2019.

Zhu L, Zhao Y, Zhang W, Zhou H, Chen X, Li Y, et al . Roles of bacterial community in the transformation of organic nitrogen toward enhanced bioavailability during composting with different wastes. Bioresour. Technol. 2019; 285:

Sileshi GW, Nhamo N, Mafongoya PL, Tanimu J. Stoichiometry of animal manure and implications for nutrient cycling and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Nutr.Cycl. Agroecosys. 2017; 107(1): 91-105.

Wang L, Li Y, Prasher SO, Yan B, Ou Y, Cui H, et al. Organic matter, a critical factor to immobilize phosphorus, copper, and zinc during composting under various initial C/N ratios. Biores Technol. 2019: 289.

Busato JG, Lima LS, Aguiar NO, Canellas LP, Olivares FL. Changes in labile phosphorus forms during maturation of vermicompost enriched with phosphorus-solubilizing and diazotrophic bacteria. Bioresour. Technol. 2012; 110: 390-395.

Ashley K, Cordell D, Mavinic D. A brief history of phosphorus: from the philosopher’s stone to nutrient recovery and reuse. Chemosphere. 2011; 84: 737-746.

Elser J, Bennett E. Phosphorus cycle: a broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature. 2011; 478: 29-31.

Cordell D, Rosemarin A, Schröder JJ, Smit AL. Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options. Chemospher. 2011; 4: 747-758.

Malik A. Environmental challenge vis a vis opportunity: the case of water hyacinth. Environ. Int. 2007; 33: 122-138.

Rai PK. Heavy metal phytoremediation from aquatic ecosystems with special reference to macrophytes. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009; 39: 697-753.

Hazarika J, Ghosh U, Kalamdhad AS, Khwairakpam M, Singh J. Transformation of elemental toxic metals into immobile fractions in paper mill sludge through rotary drum composting. Ecol. Eng. 2017; 101: 185-192.