Studying the Photodegradation of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Bimetallic Au–Pd/TiO2 Photocatalyst

Main Article Content

Souad A. Mousa
Sanaa Tareq
Eman A. Muhammed


In this study, the photodegradation of Congo red dye (CR) in aqueous solution was investigated using Au-Pd/TiO2 as photocatalyst. The concentration of dye, dosage of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2, pH of the medium and temperature were examined to find the optimum values of these parameters. It has been found that 28 ppm was the best dye concentration. The optimum amount of photocatalyst was 0.09 g/75 mL of dye solution when the degradation percent was ~ 96 % after irradiation time of 12 hours, while the best amount of hydrogen peroxide was 7μl/75 mL of dye solution at degradation percent ~97 % after irradiation time of 10 hours, whereas pH 5 was the best value to carry out the reaction at the highest degradation percent. In addition, temperature tested at range of (25-55) C˚, and it has been figured out which photodegradation percent of dye increase with raising temperature (degradation percent was ~ 98% after irradiation time of 4 hours at 55 C˚), and the activation energy of the reaction was calculated (34.8016 kJ/mole) from Arrhenius law. The thermodynamic functions ΔH#, ΔG#, and ΔS# were obtained, where ΔH# and ΔG# are positive value which means that the reaction is endothermic and non-spontaneous respectively, while ΔS# has a negative value, thus indicates that the reactants are more disordered than the excited intermediate formed. The kinetic of the reaction was studied, and it has been found that the photocatalytic reaction follows pseudo first order reaction.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mousa SA, Tareq S, Muhammed EA. Studying the Photodegradation of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Bimetallic Au–Pd/TiO2 Photocatalyst. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2021May9];18(4):1261. Available from:


Li Y, Wang W, Wang F, Di L, Yang S, Zhu S, et al. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes via Defect-Rich TiO2 Prepared by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma. Nanomaterials.2019; 9: 720.

Mahendra IP, Huda A, Ngoc HM , Nghia PT, Tamrin T, Wirjosentono B. Investigation of TiO2 doped with nitrogen and vanadium using hydrothermal/Sol-Gel method and its application for dyes photodegradation. Arab J Basic Applied Sci. 2019; 26(1): 242–253.

Cambrussi AN, Morais AS, Neris AM, Osajima JA, Silva Filho EC, Ribeiro AB. Photodegradation study of TiO2 and ZnO in suspension using miniaturized tests. Revista Matéria. 2019; 24(4).

Filippatos PP, Kelaidis N, Vasilopoulou M, Davazoglou D, Lathiotakis NN , Chroneos A. Defect processes in F and Cl doped anatase TiO2. Sci Rep. 2019; 9: 19970.

Yalçın Y, Kılıç M Z. The Role of Non-Metal Doping in TiO2 Photocatalysis. J Adv Oxid. Technol. 2019; 13 (3): 281-296.

Archana S, Munisamy M. Photoluminescence Properties of Polyphenylenediamine Doped with TiO2 Nanoparticles. Asian J Chem. 2019; 31 (2): 343-347.

Yadav S, Jaiswar G. Review on Undoped/Doped TiO2 Nanomaterial; Synthesis and Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activity. J Chin Chem Soc.2017; 64 (1) 103-116.

Kumaravel V, Mathew S, Bartlett J, Pillai SC. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using metal doped TiO2: A review of recent advances. Applied Catal B: Env. 2019; 244: 1021-1064.

Taher T, Rohendi D, Mohadi R, Lesbani A. Congo red dye removal from aqueous solution by acid-activated bentonite from sarolangun: kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies. Arab J basic appl sci.2019; 26 (1):125–136.

Bokare AD, Chikate RC, Rode CV, Paknikar KM. Iron-nickel bimetallic nanoparticles for reductive degradation of azo dye Orange G in aqueous solution. Appl Catal B: Env. 2008; 79 (3): 270-278.

Santhosh AM, Yogendra K, Mahadevan KM, Madhusudhana N. Photodegradation of Congo red azo dye, a Carcinogenic Textile dye by using synthesized Nickel Calciate Nanoparticles. In J Adv Res Sci Eng. 2017; 6 (7): 51-64.

Wang L, Li J, Wang Z, Zhao L, Jiang Q. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of α-Fe/Fe3O4 nanocomposite for fast Congo red removal. Dalton Trans. 2013; 42(7): 2572.

Adam RE, Pozina G, Willander M, Nur O. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method for solar driven photodegradation of Congo red dye at different pH. PHOTONIC NANOSTRUCT. 2018; 32: 11-18.

Namdrian AH, Tabrizi AG, Arsalani N, Khataee A, Mohammadi A. Synthesis of PANi nanoarrays anchored on 2D BiOCl nanoplates for photodegradation of Congo Red in visible light region. J Ind Eng Chem.2020; 81: 228-236.

Patel U, Shah C, George LB, Solanki H. Biodegradation of Congo red dye by bacterial strain. Univ Rev. 2019; VIII, (III): 696-705

Lafi R, Montasser I, Hafiane A. Adsorption of Congo red dye from aqueous solutions by prepared activated carbon with oxygen-containing functional groups and its regeneration. Ads Sci & Techn. 2019; 37(1-2):160-181.

Sarhan ST, Mohd IS, Taufiq-Yap YH, Abdual Halim A, Umer R. The impact of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant for solvent –free liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol using Au-Pd supported carbon and titanium catalysts. BCREC. 2018; 13 (2): 373-385.

Kumar BN, Anjaneyulu Y, Himabindu V. Comparative studies of degradation of dye intermediate (H-acid) using TiO2/UV/H2O2 and photo - Fenton process. J Chem. Pharm. Res.2011; 3(2):718-731.

Alshabanat MN, AL-Anazy MM. An Experimental Study of Photocatalytic Degradation of Congo Red Using Polymer Nanocomposite Films. J Chem. 2018;

Coleman HM, Vimonses V, Leslie G, Amal R. Degradation of 1,4-dioxane in water using TiO2 based photocatalytic and H2O2/UV processes. J Hazard Mater. 2007; 146, (3): 496-501.

Akpan UG, Hameed BH, Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts: A review. J Hazard Mater. 2009; 170: 520-529.

Kosmulski M. the significance of the difference in the point of zero charge between rutile and anatase. J adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2002; 99 (3): 181-264.

Habib A, Muslim M, Shahadat MT, Islam MN, Ismail IMI, Islam TS, et al. Photocatalytic decolorization of crystal violet in aqueous nano-ZnO suspension under visible light irradiation. J nanostructure chem. 2013; 3-70.

Sakthivel S, Neppolian B, Shankar MV, Arabindoo B, Palanichamy M, Murugesan V. Solar photocatalytic degradation of azo dye: comparison of photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO and TiO2. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 2003; 77: 65-82.

Sadollahkhani A, Kazeminezhad I, Lu J, Nur O, Hultman L, Willander LM. Synthesis, structural characterization and photocatalytic application of [email protected] core shell nanoparticles. RSC Adv. 2014; 4: 36940–36950.

Chatterjee D, Dasgupta S. Visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews. 2005; 6(2–3): 186-205.

Laidler KJ. Chemical kinetics. part 1. Second edition, MeCraw-Hill, Ine. USA. 1965: p 50.

Suhail FS, Mashkour MS, Saeb D. The study on photodegradation of crystal violet by polarographic technique. Int J Sci Basic Appl Res.2015; 15 (3):12-19.

Gajbhiye SB. Photocatalytic degradation study of methylene blue solutions and its application to dye industry effluent. Int J Mod Eng Res. 2012; 2 (3): 1204-1208.

Rio LD, Aberg J, Renner R, Dahlsten OC, Vedral V. The thermodynamic meaning of negative entropy. Nature. 2011; 474:61-3.

Kumar KV, Porkodi K, Rocha F. Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics – A theoretical study. Catal Comm. 2008; 9: 82-84.

Khorshdil N, Abedinikhorrmi S, Molya ME, Mottiee F. Photodegradation of basic dyes using nanocomposite (silver zinc oxide- copper oxide) and kinetic studies. Orient J Chem. 2016; 32 (2): 1205-1214.

Chiu YH, Chang TM, Chen CY, Sone M, Hsu YJ. Mechanistic insights into photodegradation of organic dyes using heterostructure photocatalysts. Catal. 2019; 9: 430.