Securing Text Messages Using Graph Theory and Steganography

Main Article Content

Samaher Adnan Abdul-Ghani
Renna D. Abdul-Wahhab
Enas Wahab Abood


      Data security is an important component of data communication and transmission systems. Its main role is to keep sensitive information safe and integrated from the sender to the receiver. The proposed system aims to secure text messages through two security principles encryption and steganography. The system produced a novel method for encryption using graph theory properties; it formed a graph from a password to generate an encryption key as a weight matrix of that graph and invested the Least Significant Bit (LSB) method for hiding the encrypted message in a colored image within a green component. Practical experiments of (perceptibility, capacity, and robustness) were calculated using similarity measures like PSNR, MSE, and SSIM. These measures had proved the efficiency of the system for image quality and hiding messages with PSNR ratio more than 85 dB, MSE ranged (4.537e-05  to 5.27546e-04) and SSIM=1.0 for using a cover file with size ranged from 256×300 to 1200×760 pixels and message ranged from 16 to 300 characters. 


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Abdul-Ghani SA, Abdul-Wahhab RD, Abood EW. Securing Text Messages Using Graph Theory and Steganography. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2021Dec.4];19(1):0189. Available from:


Liang R, Qin Y, Zhang C, Lai J, Liu M, Chen M. An Improved Arnold Image Scrambling Algorithm. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 2019;677(4).

Almuhammadi S, AL-Shaaby AA. A Survey on Recent Approaches Combining Cryptography and Steganography. In: ICIT 2017. 2017.

Ali H, Abood E, Khudhair W. Using LSB Method For Hiding Hill Encrypted Grayscale And RGB Images In RGB Image. J Garmian Univ. 2019;6(SCAPAS Conferance):46–53.

Iman M.G.Alwan. Image Steganography by Using Multiwavelet Transform. Baghdad Sci J. 2014;11(2):275–283.

Hashim MM, Mohd Rahim MS, Alwan AA. A review and open issues of multifarious image steganography techniques in spatial domain. J Theor Appl Inf Technol. 2018;96(4):956–77.

Cao Y. A new hybrid chaotic map and its application on image encryption and hiding. Math Probl Eng. 2013;2013.

Sattar B. Sadkhan- SMIEEE, Abbas A. Mahdi and Rana S. Mohammed. Recent Audio Steganography Trails and its Quality Measures. 2019 International Conference of Computer and Applied Sciences (CAS2019),IEEE.2019:238-243.

Deng Z, Zhong S. A digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic mapping. J Algorithm Comput Technol. 2019;13:174830261985347.

Pareek NK, Patidar V, Sud KK. Block Cipher Using 1D and 2D Chaotic Maps. Int J Inf Commun Techol [Internet]. 2010 Apr;2(3):244–259. Available from:

Kwon OM, Park JH, Lee SM. Secure communication based on chaotic synchronization via interval time-varying delay feedback control. Nonlinear Dyn [Internet]. 2011;63(1):239–52. Available from:

Al-Bahrani EA, Kadhum RNJ. A new cipher based on Feistel structure and chaotic maps. Baghdad Sci J. 2019;16(1):270–80.

Sahib Ogla RA. Symmetric- Based steganography technique using spiral-searching method for HSV color images. Baghdad Sci J. 2019;16(4):948–58.

Yamuna M, Sankar A, Ravichandran S, Harish V. Encryption of a binary string using music notes and graph theory. Int J Eng Technol. 2013;5(3):2920–5.

Akl SG. How to encrypt a graph. Int J Parallel Emergent Distrib Syst [Internet]. 2020;35(6):1–14. Available from:

Hraiz S, Etaiwi W. Symmetric encryption algorithm using graph representation. In: 2017 8th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). 2017. p. 501–6.

Etaiwi W. Encryption Algorithm Using Graph Theory. J Sci Res Reports. 2014;3:2519–27.

Akhter F. A secured word by word Graph Steganography using Huffman encoding. In: 2016 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). 2016. p. 1–4.

Kumari M, Kirubanad VB. Data encryption and decryption using graph plotting. Int J Civ Eng Technol. 2018;9(2):36–46.

Abood EW. Combining a Hill Encryption Algorithm and LSB Technique With Dispersed Way for Securing Arabic and English Text Messages Hidden in Cover Image. Ibn AL-Haitham Journal For Pure and Applied Science. 2017 Sep 25;30(2):214-23.

Welstead, Stephen T. .Fractal and wavelet image compression techniques. SPIE Publication. 1999: 155–156.

Desoky A, Younis M. Graphstega: graph steganography methodology. Journal of Digital Forensic Practice.2008; 2(1): 27-36.