Anemia and The Level of IL-6 in Children Infected with Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia

Main Article Content

Israa N. Zeki
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6528-6287
Harith Saeed Al-Warid
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6945-2652

Abstract

The relation between anemia and inflammatory immune response has lately had much attention. This research was conducted from October 2018 until April 2019, including  (110) children below 12 years from both gender in some Hospitals, Primary Health care centers, Public Primary Schools and Kindergarten in Baghdad, Iraq. The objective of this study is to determine the possible correlation between iron deficiency anemia and inflammatory immune response  among children infected with Entamoeba  histolytica or Giardia  lamblia. Blood samples were taken from all groups to measure  hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular  hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), while the inflammatory related immune response was evaluated by measuring IL-6 and ferritin. Student T-Test was used to compare between means. The results  showed that both  hemoglobin and iron concentrations were significantly (P) ˂ 0.01 lower in infected children compared with control, as well as both IL-6 and ferritin levels were significant where (P) ˂0.05 amplified among infected children compared to control. Microcytic hypochromic anemia was observed in the majority of infected children, while normocytic normochromic RBCs was recorded in the majority of control children.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Zeki IN, Al-Warid HS. Anemia and The Level of IL-6 in Children Infected with Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2021 Dec. 20 [cited 2022 Nov. 30];18(4(Suppl.):1485. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/5314
Section
article

References

References:

World Health Organization.The global prevalence of anaemia in 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. p. 43.

Allali S, Brousse V, Sacri A-S, Chalumeau M, de Montalembert M. Anemia in children: prevalence, causes, diagnostic work-up, and long-term consequences. Expert Rev. Hematol. 2017;10(11):1023-28.

Kassebaum NJ. The global burden of Anemia Hematol Oncol Clinics. 2016;30(2):247-308.

Camaschella C. Iron-deficiency anemia. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(19):1832-43.

Auerbach M, Schrier S. Treatment of iron deficiency is getting trendy. Lancet Haematol. 2017;4(11):e500.

Akeredolu IA, Oguntona BE, Okafor C, Osisanya OJ. Iron, zinc and copper malnutrition among primary school children in Lagos, Nigeria. Food Nutr Sci; 2011;2(10): 1063- 70.

Mezeid N, Shaldoum F, Al-Hindi AI, Mohamed FS, Darwish ZE. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the population of the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Ann Parasitol. 2014;60(40): 281- 89.

Zebardast N, Yeganeh F, Gharavi MJ, Abadi A, Tabaei SJS, Haghighi A. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples using multiplex PCR and qPCR-MCA. Acta tropica. 2016;162:233-38.

Hailegebriel T. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among students at Dona Berber primary school, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. BMC infectious diseases. 2017;17(1):362-68.

Duc PP, Nguyen-Viet H, Hattendorf J, Zinsstag J, Cam PD, Odermatt P. Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4(1):102-111.

Gopalakrishnan S, Eashwar VA, Muthulakshmi M, Geetha A. Intestinal parasitic infestations and anemia among urban female school children in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. J Family Med Prim Care. 2018;7(6):1395- 400.

Mohammadi R, Hosseini-Safa A, Ardakani MJE, Rostami-Nejad M. The relationship between intestinal parasites and some immune-mediated intestinal conditions. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2015;8(2):123- 31.

Al Saqur IM, Al-Warid HS, Albahadely HS. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar among Iraqi provinces. KIJOMS. 2017;3(2):93-96.

Al-Warid HS, Musa IS, Al-Qadhi BN. Iron deficiency and anthropometry in children infected with Entamoeba histolytica. Int J Recent Sci Res. (2013); 4(6): 823-26.

Truant AL, Elliott SH, Kelly MT, Smith JH. Comparison of formalin-ethyl ether sedimentation, formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation, and zinc sulfate flotation techniques for detection of intestinal parasites. JCM. 1981;13(5):882-84.

Bhattachan B, Panta Y, Tiwari S, Magar DT, Sherchand J, Rai G, et al. Intestinal Parasitic Infection among School children in Chitwan district of Nepal. J Inst Med. 2015;37(2): 79-84.

SAS J,Statistical Analysis System, User's Guide. Statistical. Version 9.1th ed. Cary. North Carolina. USA: SAS Institute. Inc; 2012.

Galván-Moroyoqui JM, Del Carmen Domínguez-Robles M, Meza I. Pathogenic bacteria prime the induction of Toll-like receptor signalling in human colonic cells by the Gal/GalNAc lectin Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Entamoeba histolytica. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41(10):1101-12.

Calvao F, Costa Gileno D, Malta JO, Vientini V, Anibal F. Anemia in patients with intestinal parasitic infection. Rev Ibero-Latinoam Parasitol. 2011;70(2):206-11.

Ali ET, Jabbar AS, Mohammed AN. A comparative study of interleukin 6, inflammatory markers, ferritin, and hematological profile in rheumatoid arthritis patients with anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia. Anemia. 2019; 2019(Article ID 3457347): 8 pages.

Perez Y, Presti K, Eden AN, Sandoval C. Iron-Deficiency Anemia During Childhood. InAnemia in the Young and Old 2019 (pp. 81-93). Springer, Cham.

Ganz T, Nemeth E. Iron homeostasis in host defence and inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015;15(8):500-10.

Wang M. Iron deficiency and other types of anemia in infants and children. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93(4):270-78.

Darlan DM, Ananda FR, Sari MI, Arrasyid NK, Sari DI. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan. InIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 2018 Mar 1; 125(1): 012059. IOP Publishing.

Longo DL, Camaschella C. Iron-deficiency anemia. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(19):1832-43.

Abdullah K, Birken CS, Maguire JL, Fehlings D, Hanley AJ, Thorpe KE, et al. Re-evaluation of serum ferritin cut-off values for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in children aged 12-36 months. J. Pediatr. 2017;188:287-90.

Lanzkowsky P, Lipton JM, Fish JD. Hematological reference values. In: Lanzkowsky's manual of pediatric hematology and oncology,6th edition. USA: Academic Press. p 709-29.

Hemphill A, Müller N, Müller J. Comparative Pathobiology of the Intestinal Protozoan Parasites Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Pathogens. 2019;8(3):8030116.

Ma K, Zhang H, Baloch Z. Pathogenetic and therapeutic applications of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in major depressive disorder: a systematic review. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(5):17050733.

Tanaka T, Narazaki M, Kishimoto T. IL-6 in inflammation, immunity, and disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014;6(10):a016295.

Sangkhae V, Nemeth E. Regulation of the iron homeostatic hormone hepcidin. Adv. Nutr 2017;8(1):126-36.