Main Article Content
Cultivation of the green seaweed Enteromorpha compressa was performed under natural laboratory spring environmental conditions of temperature, light intensity and photoperiod to study the salinity tolerance of this intertidal green macroalga. Cultivation was carried out under artificial seawater (ASW) of different concentrations (18, 35, 53 and 106 g/l sea salt) compared to the control using natural seawater (NSW). Growth rate and pigment content of the cultivated alga were recorded at regular intervals during the experimental duration. Antioxidant activity of the crude ethanolic extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone) was performed against DPPH radical scavenging assay and compared to the standard synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT). The finding showed that enhancement of algal growth rate under ASW concentrations of 35, 53 and to a lesser extent at 106 g/L during the first 15 days of cultivation were due to the increased pigment biosynthesis, photosynthetic and metabolic activities and followed by gradual retardation due to the impact of prolonged salt stress. Antioxidant activity of alga was found to be concentration, type of extract and incubation time dependent. Acetone fraction of all salt concentrations showed higher antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. Pronounced activity was recorded at higher seawater conc. (106g/l).
Received 4/8/2020, Accepted 15/10/2020, Published Online First 6/12/2020
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Manzelat FS, Mohammed Mufarrah A, Ahmed Hasan B, Ali Hussain N, Shuqaiq A, Huraidha A, Qahma A, Birk A. Macro algae of the Red Sea from Jizan. Saudi Arabia Phykos. 2018, 48: 88–108
Oohusa T. Recent trend in Nori products and market in Asia. Applied Phycol. 1993, 5:155-159
Lauritano C, Andersen JH, Hasen E, Albrigtsen M, Escalera L, Esposito F, Helland K, Giovanna-Romano HK, Lanora A. Bioactivity screening of microalgae for antioxidant anti-inflammatory anticancer Anti-diabetes and antibacterial activities. Front Mar Sci. 2016, doi: 103389/fmars201600068
Sumayya SS, Bosco L, Manoj GS, Murugan K. Prospects of seaweeds as sources of bioactive phytochemicals: A search along coastal belts of Kerala. World J Pharmac Res. 2016, 5(3):982-990.
Markov SA. Applications of microalgae in medicine and biotechnology in Eastern Europe: A historical perspectives. IL J Biotechnol Biomed Res. 2017, 1(1): 1-2.
Sathasivam R, Radhakrishnan R, Hashem A, Abdel_Allah EF. Review-Microalgae metabolites: A rich source for food and medicine. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2019, 26:709-722.
Leandro A, Pereira L, Goncalves AMM. Review-Diverse Applications of marine macroalgae. Mar Drugs. 2020, 18, 17, doi:103390/md18010017.
Ito K, Hori K. Seaweed, chemical composition and potential uses. Food Rev. Int. 1989, 5: 101-144.
Mohy El-Din SM, El Ahwany AMD. Bioactivity and phytochemical constituents of marine red Seaweeds (Jania rubens Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea). J Taibah Univ Sci 2016,10:471-484.
Ammar N, Jabnoun-Kiareddine H, Mejdoub-Trabelside B, Nefzi A, Mahjoub MA, Daami-Remadi M. Pythium leak control in potato using aqueous and organic extracts from the brown alga Sargasum vulgare (C Agard 1820). Postharvest Biol Technol. 2017, 130:81-93.
Mzibra A, Aasfar A, El Arroussi H, Khouloud M , Dhiba D , Kadmiri IM , Bamouh A. Polysaccharides extracted from Maroccan seaweed: A promising source of Tomato plant growth promoters. J Appl Phycol 2018, 30(5):2953-2962.
Umanzor S, Ladah L, Zertuche J. The influence of species density and diversity of macroalgal aggregations on microphytobenthic settlement. J. Appl. Phycol.2017, 53(5): 1060-1071.
Rashad S, El-Chaghaby GA. Marine Algae in Egypt: distribution phytochemical composition and biological uses as bioactive resources (a review). Egypt. J. Aquat. Bio. Fish. 2020, 24(5): 147 – 160.
Iasimone F Panico A De Felice V Fantasma F Iorizzi M, Pirozzi F. Effect of light intensity and nutrients supply on microalgae cultivated in urban wastewater: Biomass production lipids accumulation and settle ability characteristics. J Environ Manage. 2018,223:1078-1085.
Sousa AI, Irene Martins, Ana I Lillebø, Mogens R Flindt, Miguel A Pardal. Influence of salinity nutrients and light on the germination and growth of Enteromorpha sp Spores. J Exp. Mar Biol and Ecol. 2007, 341: 142–150.
Aguilera-Morales M Casas-Valdez M Carrillo-Dominguez S Gonzalez-Acosta B and Perez-Gill F. Chemical composition and microbiological assay of marine algae Enteromorpha spp As apotential food source. J Food Compost Anal. 2005,18: 79-88.
Wong T, Ge H, Liu T, Tian X, Wang Z, Guo M, Guo J, Zhuang Y. Salt stress induced lipid accumulation in heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides: Mechanisms based on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration. J Biotechnol 2016, 228 18-27.
Ji X , Cheng J, Gong D, Zhao X, Qi Y, Su Y, Ma W. The effect of NaCl stress on photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production in freshwater microalga-Scenedesmus obliquus XJ002. Sci Total Environ. 2018, 633:593-599.
Shalaby EA. Influence of abiotic stress on biosynthesis of alga-chemicals and its relation to biological activities. Indian J Geo Marine Sci. 2017, 46(01):23-32.
Gruenberg J, Engelen AH, Costa R, Wichard T. Macroalgal morphogenesis induced by waterborne compounds and bacteria in costal seawater. Plosone 2016, 11:e0146307.
Aleem AA. The marine algae of the Alexandria Egypt. 1993; p
Holden M. Chlorophyll in chemistry and biochemistry of plant pigments TW Goodwin, ed., Academic press London UK. 1965; p 462-488
Yen GC, Chen HY. Antioxidant activity of various tea extract in relation to their antimutagenecity. JAgr. Food Chem.. 1995, 43:27-37
APHA. Standered methods for the examination of water and wastwater16thAmerican public Health association Washington DC Applications for human health and nutrition. Trends Biotechnol. 1989, 21: 210–216
Armitage P. Statistical methods in medical research Blackwell scientific publications London. 1971, p
Lotze HK, Worm B. Complex interactions of climatic and ecological controls on macroalgal recruitment. Limnol Oceanogr. 2002, 47(6) 1734-1741
Shanab SMM, Shalaby EA, EL-Fayoumy EA. Enteromorpha compressa exhibits potant antioxidant activity. JBB. 2011, 10:1-11.
Boney AD. Experimental studies on marine algae chapter VΙ (P151-185), in: Boney (ed), A Biology of marine algae, Hutchinson Educational, 1966, p216.
He Q, Yang H, Wu L, Hu C. Effect of light intensity on physiological changes carbon allocation and neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae. Bioresour Technol. 2015, 191:219-228.
He Q, Yang H, Hu C. () Effects of temperature and its combination with high light intensity on lipid production of Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 from semi-arid desert areas. Bioresour Technol. 2018, 265:407-414.
Abo-State MA, M Shanab SMM, Ali HEA. Effect of nutrients and gamma radiation on growth and lipid accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production. J Rad Res Appl Sci 2019, 12(1): 332-342.
An M, Mou S, Zhang X, Ye N, Zheng Z, Cao S, Xu D, Fan X, Wang Y, Miao J. Temperature regulates fatty acid desaturases at a transcriptional level and modulates the fatty acid profile in the Antarctic microalga Chlamydomonas sp ICE-L . Bioresour Technol. 2013,134 151-157.
Scagel FR. Life history studies of the pacific coast Marinealga collinsiellatubeculata Setchell and Gardner. J Bot 1960, 38(6):969-983.
Liu X, Bogaert K, Englen AH, Leliaert F, Roleda MY, De clerck O. Seaweed reproductive biology: Environmental and genetic controls. Bot Mar. 2017, 60:89-108
Cardoso P, Pardal MA, Lilleb A, Ferreira SM, Raffaelli D, Marques JC. Dynamic changes in sea grass assemblages under eutrophication and implications for recovery. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 2004, 302:233-248.
Romenenko KO, Kosakovskaya IV, Romenenko PO. Phytohormones of microalgae: Biological role and involvement in the regulation of physiological process: PtI Auxins Abscisic acid ethylene. Algologia. 2016, 25(3): 330-351
El Shobary M EE. The antimicrobial activities of some seaweeds collected from Alexandria coast MSc thesis Botany Department Faculty of Science Tanta University.2010, 154p
Osman MEH, Abushady AM, Elshobary ME. In vitro screening of antimicrobial activity of extracts of some macroalgae collected from Abu- Qir bay Alexandria, Egypt Afr. J. Biotechnol 2010, 9 (12):7208- 7208.
El Shoubaky GA, Salem EA. Effect of abiotic stress on endogenous Phytohormones profile in some seaweeds. IJPPR 2016, 8 (1) :124-134.
Krezemiska I, Pawlik-Skowroska B, Trzciska M, Tys J. Influence of photoperiods on the growth rate and biomass productivity of green microalgae Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2014, 37:735-741.
Singh SP, Singh P. Effect of temperature and light on the growth of algae species: A review Ren Sust Energ Rev 2015; 50:431-444
Church J H, Wang J H, Kim K T, McLean R, Oh Y K, Nam B, Lee WH. Effect of salt type and concentration on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris in synthetic saline wastewater for biofuel production. Bioresour Technol. 2017, 243:147-153
Srivastava AK, Bhargava Pand, Rai LC. Salinity and copper-induced oxidative damage and changes in the antioxidative defense enzymes of Anabaena doliolum WJ microbiology and biotechnology 2005, 21:1291–8.
Thapar R, Srivastava AK, Bhargava P, Mishra Y, Rai LC. Impact of different abiotic stresses on growth photosynthetic electron transport chain nutrient uptake and enzyme activities of Cu- acclimated Anabaena doliolum. J Plant physiol. 2007, 165:306-316.
Abd El-Samad M, Shaddad MAK, Doaa MM. Mechanism of salt tolerance and interactive effects of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation on maize cultivars grown under salt stress conditions. Plant Growth Regul. 2004, 44:165-174
Jerez-Martel I , Garcia-Poa S , Rodriguez-MartelG , Rico M , Afonso-olivares C , Gomez-Pinchetti JL. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of crude extracts from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria strains J. Food Qual. 2017, https://doiorg/101155/2017/2924508.
Hamid S, Sibi G. Antioxidant system response in green microalga Chlorococcopsis minuta against nutrient stress in growth media. Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci. 2018, 11(4):210-216.
48- Prakash M, Gautom T, Sharma N. Effect of Salinity pH Light Intensity on Growth and Lipid Production of Microalgae for Bioenergy Application. Online J Biol Sci. 2015, 15:260-267.
Shalaby EAA, Shanab SMM, Singh V. Salt stress enhancement of antioxidant and antiviral efficiency of Spirulina platensis. J. Med. Plant Res 2010, 4(24):2622-2632.
Christaki E, Bonos E, Giannenas I, Floroupaneri P. Functional properties of carotenoids originating from algae. J. Sci. Food Agric.. 2013, 93:5-11
Hemalatha A, Karthik G, Chermapandi P, Saranya C, Anantharaman P. Antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of a marine diatom Navicula clavata and green microalgae Chlorella marina and Dunaliella salina. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2013, 4 151-157
Martel IJ, Poza SG, Martel GR, Rice M, Olivares C, Pinchetti JLG. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of crude extracts from microalgae and Cyanobacteria strains. J. Food Qual. 2017, 1-8.
Banskota AH, Sperker S, Stefanova R, McGinn PJ, O’Leary SJB. Antioxidant properties and lipid composition of selected microalgae. J Appl Phycol. 2019, 31:309-318