Drinking water quality evaluation of hand pumping wells using water quality index and standard algal toxicity testing in Mansoura and Talkha cities, Egypt

Main Article Content

Marriam Mohammad Ismail
Ahmed M. El-Naggar
Mai I. El-Gammal
Ahmed E. Hagras


Six house-hold Abyssinian pumps distributed in different villages of Mansoura (Mans-I, Mans-II and Mans-III) and Talkha (Talk-I, Talk-II and Talk-III) cities, Egypt, have been selected for regular seasonal water quality assessment during 2017. Water samples have been collected within the mid-periods of four seasons Standard assessment tools were employed for the integrated water quality assessment including Water Quality Index (WQI) and ISO standard algal toxicity test. WQI displayed remarkable local and seasonal variations with excellent (≥ 90) and good (70 - 89) only recorded for water samples collected from Mans-I pump located in sparsely populated area and far 50 meters only from the eastern (Damietta) branch of Nile River. WQI of other pumps located in densely populated areas and far kilometers from the Nile branch indicated either medium (50-69) or bad (25-49) quality depending on sampling season and sampling site location. All water samples collected from the pump Mans-I were non toxic without any inhibitory effects on the growth of the standard test alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Water samples from all other pumps, however, showed obvious toxic effects on test algae growth with varying EC50 values ranged between15.8% and 83%, depending on water sample and the sampling season. Concisely, all water samples collected from Mans-I pump were health safe with acceptable drinking water guidelines while samples collected from other pumps can impose great human health risks if used for drinking


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ismail MM, El-Naggar AM, El-Gammal MI, Hagras AE. Drinking water quality evaluation of hand pumping wells using water quality index and standard algal toxicity testing in Mansoura and Talkha cities, Egypt. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2021Dec.1 [cited 2021Dec.4];18(4):1181. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/5525


Cotruvo JA. 2017 WHO guidelines for drinking water quality: first addendum to the fourth edition. J Am Water Works Assoc., 2017 Jul;109(7):44-51.

Kahler Royer CA. A water quality index devised for the Des Moines River in Central Iowa (Master's thesis, Iowa State University).

Akter T, Jhohura FT, Akter F, Chowdhury TR, Mistry SK, Dey D, Barua MK, Islam MA, Rahman M. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. JHPN. 2016 Dec;35(1):1-2.

[ISO] International Organization of Standardization. "Water quality—Freshwater algal growth inhibition test with unicellular green algae." (2012): 21.

Miller WE, Greene JC. The SelenastrumcapricornutumPrintz algal assay bottle test: Experimental design, application, and data interpretation protocol. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory; 1978.

Al-Hasawi ZM, Abdel-Hamid MI, Almutairi AW, Touliabah HE. Response of Pseudokirchneriellasubcapitata in Free and Alginate Immobilized Cells to Heavy Metals Toxicity. Molecules. 2020 Jan;25(12):2847.

Mohie El Din MO, Moussa AM. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges. J. Adv. Res.. 2016 May 1;7(3):403-12.

Loprieno N. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man:" Relevance of data on mutagenicity". Mutation research. 1975 Jun;31(3):210.

Hagras AE, El-Tantawy SA, El-NaggarAM, El-Makarm EA. Water Quality Index and Assessment of Heavy Metals in Two Groundwater Wells in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. GSJ. 2019 Mar;7(3).

Abdel-Shafy HI, Kamel AH. Groundwater in Egypt issue: resources, location, amount, contamination, protection, renewal, future overview. Egyptian. J. Chem. 2016 May 1;59(3):321-62..

Benediktsdóttir E, Gunnarsdóttir MJ, Ómarsdóttir BD, Sigurjónsson VÍ, Gardarsson SM. Virus inactivation in groundwater in a postglacial lava field in arctic climate. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2020 Apr;70(4):282-9.

El-Gammal MI, Ali RR, Samra RM. Assessing heavy metal pollution in soils of Damietta Governorate, Egypt. InInternational Conference on Advances in Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Sciences, Dubai (UAE) 2014 Oct 15.

Megahed HA, Farrag AE. Groundwater potentiality and evaluation in the Egyptian Nile Valley: case study from Assiut Governorate using hydrochemical, bacteriological approach, and GIS techniques. Bull Natl Res Cent 2019 Dec 1;43(1):48.

Bradford SA, Harvey RW. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater. Hydrogeol J. 2017 Jun;25(4):931-8.

Rice A, Baird EW, Eaton RB. APHA 2017 Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (Washington: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Env. Federation ISBN).

Organisationmondiale de la santé, WHO--Work programme, ŚwiatowaOrganizacjaZdrowia, World Health Organization, World Health Organisation Staff. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization; 2004 Aug 31.

Walsh GE, Deans CH, McLaughlin LL. Comparison of the EC50s of algal toxicity tests calculated by four methods.Enviro. Toxicol. Chem., 1987 Oct;6(10):767-70.

Javidi A, Pierce G. US households' perception of drinking water as unsafe and its consequences: Examining alternative choices to the tap. Water Resour. Res.. 2018 Sep;54(9):6100-13.

Abbasnia A, Yousefi N, Mahvi AH, Nabizadeh R, Radfard M, Yousefi M, Alimohammadi M. Evaluation of groundwater quality using water quality index and its suitability for assessing water for drinking and irrigation purposes: Case study of Sistan and Baluchistan province (Iran). Hum Ecol Risk Assess. 2019 May 19;25(4):988-1005.

Wagh VM, Panaskar DB, Mukate SV, Aamalawar ML, LaxmanSahu U. Nitrate associated health risks from groundwater of Kadava river basin Nashik, Maharashtra, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess. 2020 Mar 15;26(3):654-72.

Alexakis DE. Meta-Evaluation of Water Quality Indices.Application into Groundwater Resources.Water. 2020 Jul;12(7):1890.

Wu Z, Wang X, Chen Y, Cai Y, Deng J. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China. Sci. Total Environ..2018 Jan 15;612:914-22.

Ustaoğlu F, Tepe Y, Taş B. Assessment of stream quality and health risk in a subtropical Turkey river system: A combined approach using statistical analysis and water quality index. Ecol. Indic. 2020 Jun 1;113:105815.