Main Article Content
The present study has been carried out to estimate heavy metals mobility, bioconcentration and transfer from polluted soil to roots tissues and from roots tissues to aerial parts using bioconcentration factor and translocation factor. Soil samples and the biomass of the eight vegetable species have been collected during summer season, 2019 from four different sites in Wadi Al-Arg, Taif Governorate, KSA. In general, heavy metals content of soil samples in site III and IV have recorded elevated values compared with those of site I and II. The soil from site IV has shown the highest concentration of Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu, and Cd amounted 31.63, 14.05, 13.56, 22.79, 31.02 and 2.98 mg/kg dry soil respectively, while the soil from site III has shown the highest concentration of Zn. The data referred to the fact that Mentha longifolia, Cucumis sativus, Capsicum annuum, Lactuca sativa Cucurbita pepo, and Anethum graveolens that grown in sites of investigation could be recognized as suitable for human consumption. These six vegetables could accumulate the measured heavy metals in their tissues with acceptable quantities, less than the permissible levels of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Otherwise, heavy metal concentrations in Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum melongena have been found to be higher than permissible limits of FAO. Both plants also have shown elevated bioconcentration factors values for most of measured heavy metals. For S. lycopersicum the bioconcentration factor values of Fe, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn have been found to be 42.150, 27.250, 1.023, ND, 5.926, 4.649, 29.409, and 0.459 respectively. While for S. melongena, they have been 2.360, 21.333, ND, 0.170, ND, 3.113, 50.318, and 0.623, respectively. To avoid the harmful effects of the heavy metals accumulation on human health, consideration should be given to the constant examination to the edible parts of the vegetables grown in heavy metals contaminated soil.
Received 10/10/2020, Accepted 13/12/2020, Published Online First 21/2/2021
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
(2) Zwolak A, Sarzyńska M, Szpyrka E. Stawarczyk. Sources of Soil Pollution by Heavy Metals and Their Accumulation in Vegetables: a Review. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2019, 230 (7): 164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4221-y.
(3) Ghori NH, Ghori T, Hayat MQ, Imadi SR, Gul A, Altay V. Heavy metal stress and responses in plants. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2019,16 (3): 1807–1828. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02215-8
(4) Muthusaravanan S, Sivarajasekar N, Vivek JS, Paramasivan T, Naushad M, Prakashmaran J. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: mechanisms, methods and enhancements. Environ Chem Lett. 2018, 16: 1339–1359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-018-0762-3.
(5) Farahat EA, Galal TM, Elawa OE, Hassan LM. Health risk assessment and growth characteristics of wheat and maize crops irrigated with contaminated wastewater. Environ Monit Assess. 2017, 189 (11): 535. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6259-x.
(6) Khan A, Khan S, Alam M, Khan MA, Aamir M, Qamar Z. Toxic metal interactions affect the bioaccumulation and dietary intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. Chemosphere. 2016, 46:121-128. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.014.
(7) Flora SJ, Mittal M, Mehta A. Heavy metal induced oxidative stress & its possible reversal by chelation therapy. Indian J Med Res. 2008, 128 (4): 501-523.
(8) Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2014, 7(2): 60-72. DOI: 10.2478/intox-2014-0009.
(9) Sharma G, Pathania D, Naushad M. Preparation, characterization, and ion exchange behavior of nanocomposite polyaniline zirconium(IV) selenotungstophosphate for the separation of toxic metal ions. Ionics, 2015, 21 (4): 1045–1055. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-014-1269-y
(10) Petelka J, Abraham J, Bockreis A, Deikumah JB, Zerbe S. Soil Heavy Metal(loid) Pollution and Phytoremediation Potential of Native Plants on a Former Gold Mine in Ghana. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2019, 230 (11): 267-283. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4317-4.
(11) Yan A, Wang Y, Tan SN, Mohd Yusof ML, Ghosh S, Chen Z. Phytoremediation: A Promising Approach for Revegetation of Heavy Metal-Polluted Land. Front Plant Sci. 2020, 30: 11-359. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.00359. eCollection 2020.
(12) Aydın-Önen S, Öztürk M. Investigation of heavy metal pollution in eastern Aegean Sea coastal waters by using Cystoseira barbata, Patella caerulea, and Liza aurata as biological indicators. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2017, 24: 7310-7334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8226-4.
(13) Shafiq M, Bakht J, Iqbal A, Shaf M. Growth, protein expresion and heavy metal uptak by Tobacco under heavy metals contaminated soil. Pak. J. Bot. 2020, 52(5): 1569-1576. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30848/PJB2020-5(13)
(14) Ülger TG, Songur AN, Çırak O, Çakıroğlu FB. Role of Vegetables in Human Nutrition and Disease Prevention . Open access peer-reviewed chapter.2018, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77038.
(15) Rehman MZU, Rizwan M, Ali S, Ok YS, Ishaque W, Nawaz MF. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils by using Solanum nigrum: A review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017, 143:236-248. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.05.038.
(16) He X, Zhang J, Ren Y, Sun C, Deng X, Qian M. Polyaspartate and liquid amino acid fertilizer are appropriate alternatives for promoting the phytoextraction of cadmium and lead in Solanum nigrum L. Chemosphere. 2019, 237: 124483. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124483.
(17) Gomes MA, Hauser-Davis RA, De Souza AN,Vitória AP. Metal phytoremediation: General strategies, genetically modified plants and applications in metal nanoparticle contamination. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016, 134P1:133-147. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.08.024.
(18) Farrag H. Floristic composition and vegetation-soil relationships in Wadi Al-Argy of Taif region, Saudi Arabia. Int Res J Plant Sci. 2012, 3 (8): 147–157. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284680175_Floristic_composition_and_vegetation-soil_relationships_in_Wadi_Al-Argy_of_Taif_region_Saudi_Arabia.
(19) Pandey S, Rai R, Rai LC. Biochemical and molecular basis of arsenic toxicity and tolerance in microbes and plants Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology. Elsevier. 2015, 627-674. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-418688-0.00027-7.
(20) European Union. Heavy Metals in Wastes, European Commission on Environment. 2002, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/studies/pdf/heavy_metalsreport.pdf.
(21) Farrag HF, Al-Sodany YM, Otiby FG. Phytoremediation and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals by some plants in Wadi Alargy-Wetland, Taif-KSA. World Appl Sci J. 2013, 28(5): 644-653. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.28.05.2018.
(22) Majid SN, Khwakaram AI, Rasul Ghafoor AM, Ahmed ZH. Bioaccumulation, enrichment and translocation factors of some heavy metals in Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis species growing along Qalyasan Stream in Sulaimani City/IKR. J Zankoy Sulaim A.2014, 16(4): 93-109.
(23) Chunilall V, Kindness A, Jonnalagadda SB. Heavy metal uptake by two edible Amaranthus herbs grown on soils contaminated with lead, mercury, cadmium, and nickel. J Environ Sci Health B. 2005, 40(2): 375-384. DOI: 10.1081/PFC-200045573.
(24) Connell D. Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry. 2nd edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 2005, https://doi.org/10.1201/b12378 .
(25) Badr N, Fawzy M, Al-Qahtani KM. Phytoremediation: An Ecological Solution to Heavy-Metal-Polluted Soil and Evaluation of Plant Removal Ability. World Appl Sci J. 2012, 16 (9):1292-1301. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284092238_Phytoremediation_ An_ecological_solution_to_heavy-metal-polluted_soil_and_evaluation_of_plant_removal_ ability.
(26) Al- Qahtani KM. Assessment of Heavy Metals Accumulation in Native Plant Species from Soils Contaminated in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J. 2012, 9 (2): 384-392. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265796869_Assessment_of_Heavy_Metals_Accumulation_in_Native_Plant_Species_from_Soils_Contaminated_in_Riyadh_City_Saudi_Arabia.
(27) Fayiga AQ, Ma LQ. Using phosphate rock to immobilize metals in soils and increase arsenic uptake in Pteris vittata. Sci Total Environ., 359 (1-3): 17–25. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.06.001.
(28) Yoon J, Cao X, Zhou Q, Ma Q. Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Sci. Total Environ. 2006, 368 (2-3):456–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.016.