Body mass index and shortened telomere length in middle-aged female and male RUNNING HEAD: Middle-aged and shortened telomere length

Main Article Content

Tahreer Mohammed Al-Thuwaini


Obesity is a risk factor associated with age-related disorders that accelerate aging, and it increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with the presence of higher body weight in middle-aged females and males. The study subjects comprised 160 (80 control and 80 higher body mass index BMI groups) with ranging ages of 30-50 years included and stratified for BMI. The physio-biochemical analysis was measured using enzymatic determination. Mean telomere length was determined by using the southern blotting technique. The association analysis revealed a significant variance (P < 0.01) in biochemical parameters between higher BMI groups and control including waist, lipid profile, and the level of estradiol, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Mean telomere length was shorter in middle-aged males compared to the females of higher BMI groups and control groups for both age groups. LTL was shorter in the overweight and obese patients compared with the control group, and these differences in LTL obese group were shorter compared to the overweight group. In conclusion, shorter telomere length was observed in middle-aged males associated with higher body weight and lipid abnormalities. Lipid/lipoprotein abnormalities can be used as a predictor for the shortened telomere length and the reduction in adiposity indices can improvement the telomere length in both overweight and obese subjects.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Al-Thuwaini TM. Body mass index and shortened telomere length in middle-aged female and male RUNNING HEAD: Middle-aged and shortened telomere length. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2022Apr.1 [cited 2022Jun.26];19(2):0246. Available from:


Buxton JL, Das S, Rodriguez A, Kaakinen M, Alves A C, Sebert S, et al. Multiple measures of adiposity are associated with mean leukocyte telomere length in the northern Finland birth cohort 1966. PloS one. 2014; 9(6).‏

Al-Thuwaini TM. Association of antidiabetic therapy with shortened telomere length in middle-aged Type 2 diabetic patients. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2021; 1-8.‏

Vasilopoulos E, Fragkiadaki P, Kalliora C, Fragou D, Docea AO, Vakonaki E, et al. The association of female and male infertility with telomere length (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2019; 44(2): 375-389.

Milte CM, Russell AP, Ball K, Crawford D, Salmon J, McNaughton SA. Diet quality and telomere length in older Australian men and women. Eur J Nutr. 2018; 57(1): 363-372.‏

Louzon M, Coeurdassier M, Gimbert F, Pauget B, de Vaufleury A. Telomere dynamic in humans and animals: Review and perspectives in environmental toxicology. Environ Int. 2018; 131: 105025.

Nguyen MT, Lycett K, Vryer R, Burgner DP, Ranganathan S, Grobler AC, et al. Telomere length: population epidemiology and concordance in Australian children aged 11–12 years and their parents. BMJ open. 2019; 9 (Suppl 3): 118-126.‏

Benetos A, Okuda K, Lajemi M, Kimura M, Thomas F, Skurnick J, et al. Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: the gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. Hypertension. 2001; 37(2): 381-385.‏

Ghimire S, Hill CV, Sy FS, Rodriguez R. Decline in telomere length by age and effect modification by gender, allostatic load and comorbidities in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002). PloS one. 2001; 14(8).‏

Grunnet LG, Pilgaard K, Alibegovic A, Jensen CB, Hjort L, Ozanne SE, et al. Leukocyte telomere length is associated with elevated plasma glucose and HbA1c in young healthy men independent of birth weight. Sci Rep. 2019; 9(1): 1-8.‏

Carroll JE, Esquivel S, Goldberg A, Seeman TE, Effros RB, Dock J, et al. Insomnia and telomere length in older adults. Sleep. 2016; 39(3): 559-564.‏

Tucker LA. Physical activity and telomere length in US men and women: An NHANES investigation. Prev Med. 2017; 100: 145-151.

Kim S, Parks CG, DeRoo LA, Chen H, Taylor JA, Cawthon RM, et al. Obesity and weight gain in adulthood and telomere length. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers. 2009; 18(3): 816-820.‏

Karam JG. Secondary causes of obesity. Clinical Practice. 2007; 4(5): 641.‏

Csige I, Ujvarosy D, Szabo Z, Lorincz I, Paragh G, Harangi M, et al. The Impact of Obesity on the Cardiovascular System. J Diabetes Res. 2018; 3407306.

Factor-Litvak P, Susser E, Kezios K, McKeague I, Kark JD, Hoffman M, et al. Leukocyte telomere length in newborns: implications for the role of telomeres in human disease. Pediatrics. 2016; 137(4): e20153927.‏

Panahi Y, Moghaddam FS, Babaei K, Eftekhar M, Badv RS, Eskandari MR, et al. Sexual Dimorphism in Telomere Length in Childhood Autism. medRxiv.2020.‏

Lee DC, Im JA, Kim JH, Lee HR, Shim JY. Effect of long-term hormone therapy on telomere length in postmenopausal women. Yonsei Med J. 2005; 46(4): 471-479.‏

Shin D, Shin J, Lee KW. Effects of Inflammation and Depression on Telomere Length in Young Adults in the United States. J Clin Med. 2019; 8(5): 711.‏

Mathers C, Fat DM, Boerma JT, World Health Organization. The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008.‏

Benetos A, Gardner JP, Zureik M, Labat C, Xiaobin L, Adamopoulos C, et al. Short telomeres are associated with increased carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive subjects. Hypertension. 2004; 43(2): 182-185.‏

Adaikalakoteswari A, Balasubramanyam M, Mohan V. Telomere shortening occurs in Asian Indian Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2005; 22(9): 1151-1156.‏ ‏

Ugwuja EI, Ogbonna NC, Nwibo AN, Onimawo IA. Overweight and obesity, lipid profile and atherogenic indices among civil servants in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013; 3(1): 13-18.‏

Natah TM. Serum adiponectin levels in pre-postmenopausal metabolic syndrome women and the correlation with some physio-biochemical parameters. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2014; 8(17): 360-366.‏

Suneetha K. Study of Lipid Profile in Obese and Non-obese Students in Acharya Nagarjuna University. Int J Pharm Clin Res. 2018; 10(2): 40-42.‏

Chooi YC, Ding C, Magkos F. The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism. 2019; 92: 6-10.

Ramachandran V. Evaluation of Lifestyle of Middle Age People Related to Obesity. Adv Obes Weight Manag Control. 2018; 8(1): 00216.‏

García-Calzón S, Moleres A, Marcos A, Campoy C, Moreno LA, Azcona-Sanjulián MC, et al. Telomere Length as a Biomarker for Adiposity Changes after a Multidisciplinary Intervention in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The EVASYON Study. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(2): e89828.

Ali Z, Al-Zaidi MS. The association between body mass index, lipid profile and serum estradiol levels in a sample of Iraqi diabetic premenopausal women. Oman Med J. 2011; 26(4):263.‏

Romero-Moraleda B, Lozano ABP, Martínez EM, López-Plaza B, Candela CG, Montero FJC, et al. Lipid profile response to weight loss program in an overweight and obese patient is related with gender and age. Nutr Hosp. 2015; 31(6): 2455-2464.‏

Coll JL, del Mar Bibiloni M, Salas R, Pons A, Tur JA. Prevalence and related risk factors of overweight and obesity among the adult population in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region. Obes Facts. 2015; 8(3): 220-233.‏

Nagarkar AM, Kulkarni SS. Obesity and its effects on health in middle-aged women from slums of Pune. J Midlife Health. 2018; 9(2):79.‏

Villareal DT, Apovian CM, Kushner RF, Klein S. Obesity in older adults: technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 13(11): 1849-1863.‏

Rodríguez-Martín A, Ruiz JN, Nieto JM, Jiménez LE. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Spanish adults. Nutr Hosp. 2009; 24(2): 144-151.‏

Finkelstein EA, Brown DS, Trogdon JG, Segel JE, Ben‐Joseph RH. Age‐specific impact of obesity on prevalence and costs of diabetes and dyslipidemia. Value Health. 2007; 10: S45-S51.‏

De Pergola G, Maldera S, Tartagni M, Pannacciulli N, Loverro G, Giorgino R. Inhibitory effect of obesity on gonadotropin, estradiol, and inhibin B levels in fertile women. Obesity. 2006; 14(11): 1954-1960.‏

Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Gracia CR. Obesity and reproductive hormone levels in the transition to menopause. Menopause. 2010; 17(4): 718.‏

Lee HY, Lee YJ, Ahn MB, Cho WK, Suh BK. The effect of overweight on the luteinizing hormone level after gonadorelin stimulation test in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 23(4): 215-219.‏

Al-Thuwaini T. Association between polymorphism in BMP15 and GDF9 genes and impairing female fecundity in diabetes type 2. Middle East Fertil Soc J. 2020; 25(1): 1-10.‏‏

Chosich J, Bradford AP, Allshouse AA, Reusch JE, Santoro N, Schauer IE. Acute recapitulation of the hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia characteristic of metabolic syndrome suppresses gonadotropins. Obesity. 2017; 25(3): 553-560.

Bekaert M, Van Nieuwenhove Y, Calders P, Cuvelier CA, Batens AH, Kaufman JM, et al. Determinants of testosterone levels in human male obesity. Endocrine. 2015; 50(1): 202-211.‏

Amjad S, Baig M, Zahid N, Tariq S, Rehman R. Association between leptin, obesity, hormonal interplay and male infertility. Andrologia. 2019; 51(1): e13147.‏ ‏

Bellastella G, Menafra D, Puliani G, Colao A, Savastano S. How much does obesity affect the male reproductive function?. Int J Obes Supp. 2019; 9(1): 50-64. ‏

Yamaçake KGR, Cocuzza M, Torricelli FCM, Tiseo BC, Frati R, Freire G C, et al. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men. Int. braz J Urol. 2016; 42(2): 365-372.‏

Rogge MM, Gautam B. Biology of obesity and weight regain: Implications for clinical practice. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2017; 29(S1): S15-S29.‏

Mangge H, Herrmann M, Almer G, Zelzer S, Moeller R, Horejsi R, et al. Telomere shortening associates with elevated insulin and nuchal fat accumulation. Sci Rep. 2020; 10(1): 1-9.‏

Axson EL, Peterson KE, Tellez-Rojo MM, Goodrich JM, Meeker J, Mercado-García A, et al. Sex Differences in Telomere Length Are Not Mediated by Sex Steroid Hormones or Body Size in Early Adolescence. Gend. Genome. 2018; 2(3): 68-75.‏

Desmawati D, Sulastri D, Lestari Y, Jamsari J. Correlation between phytoestrogens intake with telomere length in Minangkabau premenopausal women. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2018; 11(11): 499-502.‏