Effects of Nitrogen and Sulfur Sprays on the Growth and Production of Broccoli Brassica Oleracea var. Italica L. nitrogen and sulfur spray enhance broccoli growth and production

Main Article Content

Mushtak F. Karomi Kisko
Nabil Jwad Kadhum
Zainab Anwar Ali
Noora Saheb Abid


In order to achieve optimal plant growth and production, essential nutrients must be readily available in adequate quantities and in a balanced proportion to give a good yield, especially broccoli which has health benefits that may not be found in many other plants. For this purpose, this experiment was carried out during the seasons 2019/2020 in the botanical garden of the Department of Biology, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, to study the effects of nitrogen and sulphur and their interaction on eight parameters reflecting the overall traits of vegetative growth, yield, and chlorophyll content of broccoli Brassica oleracea L. (var. italic JASSMINE F1 Hybrid). A factorial design with three replicates was used, each with 7 plants treated via foliar spraying. The first factor included three groups; control N0 (distill water spray), N1 (500 mg.l-1 nitrogen), and N2 (1000 mg.l-1 nitrogen). The second factor also included three groups; control S0 (distill water spray), S1 (500 mg.l-1 sulfur), and S2 (1000 mg.l-1 sulfur). We used Urea (CO(NH2)2) as a nitrogen source and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) as a sulfur source. As for the treatment with nitrogen, the results revealed that N2 treatment caused the significantly highest values in all the studied traits, except for the plant height, where there was no significant difference between N1 and N2. As related to the treatment with sulphur, the results showed that S2 treatment resulted in the significantly highest values of leave area, leave dry weight, and root fresh weight. S2 also caused the highest values, but with no significant differences, of plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll content index. S1 treatment, on the other hand, caused insignificantly higher values of leave number per plant and main curd weight. Based on the results of the interaction between nitrogen and sulfur, S1N2 treatment resulted in the significantly highest values as compared to all other treatments of all the studied traits, except for the plant height, root fresh weight, and main curd weight. The results presented here may facilitate improvements of Broccoli cultivation with suitable nutrient concentrations for sustainable agriculture. In conclusion, the present study comes up with the following: nitrogen and sulfur and their interaction enhance significantly the growth and production of broccoli.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kisko MFK, Kadhum NJ, Ali ZA, Abid NS. Effects of Nitrogen and Sulfur Sprays on the Growth and Production of Broccoli Brassica Oleracea var. Italica L.: nitrogen and sulfur spray enhance broccoli growth and production. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2021Mar.4];18(3):0501. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/5861


Anonymous (2020) Broccoli, Encyclopedia Britannica.

FAOSTAT, 2018 UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2019. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.

Ravi kumar C. Therapeutic potential of Brassica oleracea (broccoli)–A review. Int J Drug Dev Res. 2015;7(2):009-10.

Liu M, Zhang L, Ser SL, Cumming JR, Ku KM. Comparative phytonutrient analysis of broccoli by-products: The potentials for broccoli by-product utilization. Molecules. 2018 Apr;23(4):900.

Raiola A, Errico A, Petruk G, Monti DM, Barone A, Rigano MM. Bioactive compounds in Brassicaceae vegetables with a role in the prevention of chronic diseases. Molecules. 2018 Jan;23(1):15.

Qahar A, Ahmad B. Macro Nutrients (Nitrogen and Sulfur) Role in Phenology and Physiology of Different Corn Hybrids under Agro Climatic Conditions of Peshawar. Pure Appl Biol. 2015 Mar 1;4(1):89.

Kaur G, Sharma M. Effect of nitrogen doses and inter crops on growth and yield of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica). Indian J Agric Res. 2018;52(5):566-70.

Conversa G, Lazzizera C, Bonasia A, Elia A. Growth, N uptake and N critical dilution curve in broccoli cultivars grown under Mediterranean conditions. Sci Hortic. 2019 Jan 26;244:109-21.

Babik I, Elkner K. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation on yield and quality of broccoli. InWorkshop Towards and Ecologically Sound Fertilisation in Field Vegetable Production 571 2000 Sep 11 (pp. 33-43).

Skudra I, Ruza A. Effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on chlorophyll content in winter wheat. Rural Sustainability Res. 2017 Jul 1;37(332):29-37.

Mellgren R. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen treatments on yield, quality, plant nitrogen uptake and soil nitrogen status and the evaluation of sap test, SPAD chlorophyll meter and Dualex to monitor nitrogen status in broccoli. 2008.

Corrêa C, Gouveia A, Cardoso A. BROCCOLI PRODUCTION IN FUNCTION OF DOSES OF SULPHUR IN COVERAGE. Braz J Agric-Revista de Agricultura. 2019 Aug 26;94(2):144-52.

Farooq M, Bakhtiar M, Ahmed S, Ilyas N, Khan I, Saboor A, et al. Influence of Sulfur and Boron on the growth and yield of Broccoli. Int J Environ Agric Res. 2018;4(4):9-16.

Sanderson KR. Broccoli and cauliflower response to supplemental soil sulphur and calcium. In XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Toward Ecologically Sound Fertilization Strategies for Field Vegetable Production 627 2002 Aug 11 (pp. 171-179).

Abdallah M, Dubousset L, Meuriot F, Etienne P, Avice JC, Ourry A. Effect of mineral sulphur availability on nitrogen and sulphur uptake and remobilization during the vegetative growth of Brassica napus L. J Exp Bot. 2010 Jun 1;61(10):2635-46.

Slosar M, Uher A, Andrejiova A, JurÍkova T. Selected yield and qualitative parameters of broccoli in dependence on nitrogen, sulfur, and zinc fertilization. Turk J Agric For. 2016 May 18;40(3):465-73.

Elwan MW, Abd El-Hamed KE. Influence of nitrogen form, growing season and sulfur fertilization on yield and the content of nitrate and vitamin C of broccoli. Sci Hortic. 2011 Jan 10;127(3):181-7.

Aghtape AA, Ghanbari A, Sirousmehr A, Siahsar B, Asgharipour M, Tavssoli A. Effect of irrigation with wastewater and foliar fertilizer application on some forage characteristics of foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Int J Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011 Mar 31;3(3):34-42.

Riley H, Vågen I. Critical N-concentrations in broccoli and cauliflower, evaluated in field trials with varying levels and timing N fertilizer. InXXVI International Horticultural Congress: Toward Ecologically Sound Fertilization Strategies for Field Vegetable Production 627 2002 Aug 11 (pp. 241-249).

Everaarts AP, De Willigen P. The effect of nitrogen and the method of application on yield and quality of broccoli. NJAS 1999 Nov 1;47(2):123-33.

Dong T, Shang J, Chen JM, Liu J, Qian B, Ma B, et al. Assessment of portable chlorophyll meters for measuring crop leaf chlorophyll concentration. Remote Sens. 2019 Jan;11(22):2706.

Leghari SJ, Wahocho NA, Laghari GM, HafeezLaghari A, MustafaBhabhan G, HussainTalpur K, et al. Role of nitrogen for plant growth and development: A review. Adv Environ Biol. 2016 Sep 1;10(9):209-19.

Raza MA, Feng LY, Iqbal N, Manaf A, Khalid MH, Ur Rehman S, et al. Effect of sulphur application on photosynthesis and biomass accumulation of sesame varieties under rainfed conditions. Agron. 2018 Aug;8(8):149.

Jobe TO, Zenzen I, Rahimzadeh KP, Kopriva S. Integration of sulfate assimilation with carbon and nitrogen metabolism in transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis. J Exp Bot. 2019 Aug 15;70(16):4211-21.

Koch M, Naumann M, Pawelzik E, Gransee A, Thiel H. The importance of nutrient management for potato production Part I: Plant nutrition and yield. Potato Res. 2020 Mar;63(1):97-119.

Kashiyama Y, Ogawa NO, Kuroda J, Shiro M, Nomoto S, Tada R, et al. Diazotrophic cyanobacteria as the major photoautotrophs during mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events: Nitrogen and carbon isotopic evidence from sedimentary porphyrin. Org Geochem. 2008 May 1;39(5):532-49.

Baloch PA, Riaz U, Nizamani FK, Solangi AH, Siddiqui AA. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on growth and yield characteristics of radish (Raphinus sativus L.). Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci. 2014;14(6):565-9.

Leghari SJ, Wahocho NA, Laghari GM, HafeezLaghari A, MustafaBhabhan G, HussainTalpur K, et al. Role of nitrogen for plant growth and development: A review. Adv Environ Biol. 2016 Sep 1;10(9):209-19.

Samuilov S, Brilhaus D, Rademacher N, Flachbart S, Arab L, Alfarraj S, et al. The photorespiratory BOU gene mutation alters sulfur assimilation and its crosstalk with carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Front Plant Sci. 2018 Nov 27;9:1709.

Nikiforova V, Freitag J, Kempa S, Adamik M, Hesse H, Hoefgen R. Transcriptome analysis of sulfur depletion in Arabidopsis thaliana: interlacing of biosynthetic pathways provides response specificity. Plant J. 2003 Feb;33(4):633-50.

Koprivova A, Kopriva S. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of sulfate assimilation: first steps on a long road. Front Plant Sci. 2014 Oct 29;5:589.

Metwaly EE. Effect of Nitrogen and Boron Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Broccoli. J Plant Prod. 2016 Dec 1;7(12):1395-400.

Yoldas F, Ceylan S, Yagmur B, Mordogan N. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on yield quality and nutrient content in broccoli. J Plant Nutr. 2008 Jun 18;31(7):1333-43.

Jamre BR, Nagaich KN, Hemlata V. Effect of different levels of sulphur and zinc on growth and yield of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.). Asian J Hort. 2010;5(2):323-5.

Khan OA, Raina SK, D RAM MA, MALIK M, WANI J. Effect of different sources of sulphur on yield and quality of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) under temperate conditions of Kashmir. Indian J Agric Sci. 2018 Feb 1;88(2):284-8.

Schonhof I, Blankenburg D, Müller S, Krumbein A. Sulfur and nitrogen supply influence growth, product appearance, and glucosinolate concentration of broccoli. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci. 2007 Feb;170(1):65-72.