Main Article Content
Trichomonas vaginalis is a causative agent of trichomoniasis , one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) over all the world, especially in immunocompromised women such as pregnant. Wet smear and Giemsa stain are the current methods used in hospital to diagnosis trichomoniasis. DNA based diagnosis is still to be validated to diagnose the local isolates, the objective of the present study was to compare the conventional methods of disease diagnosis with the DNA-based method to diagnose Trichomonas incidence in local isolates. In the present study, 105 samples were collected from outpatient women (18-45 years) of Maternity hospital in Mosul who showed a classical presentation of Trichomonas infection including foul-smelling vaginal discharge with a pH exceeding 4.5. Samples underwent microscopic examination and nucleic acid detection of AP65-1 gene, the wet smear test showed that 16.18% of the collected specimen were positive while the parasite appeared only in 8.9% of the samples stained with Giemsa dye, the molecular screening for AP65-1gene that encodes for the surface attachment protein showed high sensitivity level of 100 at 50 specificity level in compare with other routine methods, the algorithm was evaluated according to specificity, sensitivity, and predictive values. Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was achieved to estimate genetic indices among isolated strains. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using PAST (Paleontological statistics software) and dendrogram with neighboring clusters was constructed. According to the outcomes of research, we recommended to utilize a probiotic vaccines and molecular silencing vaccine (like miRNA sense and antisense oligonucleotides) as a treatment in.
Published Online First 20/3/2022
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Sherrard J, Wilson J, Donders G, Mendling W, Jensen JS. European (IUSTI/WHO) International Union against sexually transmitted infections , World Health Organization (WHO) guideline on the management of vaginal discharge . Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Nov; 29 (13): 1258-7. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0956462418785451
Margarita V, Fiori PL, Rappelli P. Impact of symbiosis between Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis on vaginal dysbiosis: a mini review. Front Cell. Infect Microbiol.: 2020 may; 10:1-6 . https://doi:10.3389/fcimb.2020.00179 .
Cheng L, Norenhag J, Hu YO, Brusselaers N, Fransson E, Ahrlund-Richter A et al. Vaginal microbiota and human papillomavirus infection among young Swedish women. NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes. 2020 Oct 12; 6 (1): 39. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41522-020-00146-8
Schwebke JR, Muzny CA, Josey WE. Role of Gardnerella vaginalis in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis: a conceptual model. J Infect Dis.: 2014 Aug1;210(3):338-43. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu089
Fidel PL, Barousse M, Espinosa T, Ficarra M, Sturtevant J, Martin DH et al. An intravaginal live Candida challenge in humans leads to new hypotheses for the immunopathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 2004 May 1;72(5):2939-46. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.72.5.2939-2946.2004
Edan EM, Jassim AN, Adhiah AH. Evaluation the efficiency of Trichomonas vaginalis depending on clinical sings, direct examination, culturing and serological test. Baghdad Sci J. 2011;8(1) :392-399.
Edan EM, Jassim AN, Adhiah AH. Study of growth curve and morphological change for Trichomonas vaginalis parasite in the tow culture media. Baghdad Sci. J. 2014;11(2) :761-767.
Alderete JF. Advancing Prevention of STIs by Developing Specific Serodiagnostic Targets: Trichomonas vaginalis as a Model : Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020, 17 (16):1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165783 .
Gülmezoglu AM, Azhar M. Interventions for trichomoniasis in pregnancy. Cochrane Database. Syst Rev. 2011:5(220):1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858 . CD0002 20 .
Alderete JF, Garza GE. Specific nature of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitism of host cell surfaces. Infect Immun. 1985; 50(3):701-8. https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.50.3.701-708 .
Espiritu CAL, Justo CAC, Rubio MJ, Svobodova M, Bashammakh AS, Alyoubi AO et al. Aptamer selection against a Trichomonas vaginalis adhesion protein for diagnostic applications. ACS Infect. Dis. 2018;4(9):1306-15. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00065
Garcia AF, Chang TH, Benchimol M, Klumpp DJ, Lehker MW, Alderete JF. et al. Iron and contact with host cells induce expression of adhesins on surface of Trichomonas vaginalis. Mol. Microbiol. 2003; 47(5):1207-24. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03366 .
Meade J C, Carlton JM. Genetic diversity in Trichomonas vaginalis. Sex. Transm Infect. 2013; 89 (6):444–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2013-051098
Al-Mamoori Z, Alhisnawi A, Yousif J. Prediction of trichomoniasis in women complaining vaginal discharge by different methods and determine some immunological markers. Plant Arch. 2020; 20(1):3653-8.
Al-abodi H, Al-Shaibani K, Shaker E. Molecular investigation of Trichomoniasis in women in Al-Muthana province/Iraq. J Phys Conf Ser. 2019 Jul. 1234(1): 12078. https://doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1234/1/012078
Abdul-Aziz M, Mahdy M, Abdul-Ghani R. Bacterial vaginosis, vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and trichomonal vaginitis among reproductive-aged women seeking primary healthcare in Sana’a city, Yemen. BMC Infect Dis. 2019; 19(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4549-3
MutluYar T, Karakuş M, Töz S , Bay Karabulut A, Atambay M. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis in male patients on performing nested polymerase chain reaction. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2017; 41:130-4. https://doi.org/hdl.handle.net/11616/13266
Van Der Pol B. Clinical and laboratory testing for Trichomonas vaginalis infection. J clin microbiol. Jan 1, 2016 ;54(1):7-12. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM. 02025-15
Adjei C, Boateng R, Dompreh A, Okyere B, Owiredu EW. Prevalence and the evaluation of culture, wet mount, and ELISA methods for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among Ghanaian women using urine and vaginal specimens. Trop Med Health. May2019;16(47):33.
Ferris DG, Francis SL, Dickman ED, Miler-Miles K , Waller JL, McClendon N. Variability of vaginal pH determination by pateints and clinicians. J Am Broad. Fam Med. 2006; 19 (4): 368-73. https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.19.4.368
Triviño-Valencia J, Lora F, Zuluaga JD, Gomez-Marin JE. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia. Parasitol Res. 2016 May;115(5):1789-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-4917-5
Green M, Hughes H, Sambrook J, MacCallum P. Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual. 4rd ed .Cold Spring Harbor,USA. 2012;:1890 p.
Hammer Q, Harper D, Ryan P. PAST: Paleonto-logical Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica. 2001; 4(1): 9.
Niazi A. Statistical Analysis in Medical Research. Republic of Iraq. Iraqi J Med. Sci., Al-Nehrein university. 2000; 5(3):65-72.
Radonjic IV, Dzamic AM, Mitrovic SM, Arsic Arsenijevic VS, Popadic DM, Kranjcic Zec IF. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection: the sensitivities and specificities of microscopy, culture and PCR assay. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol.1; 2006 ; 126(1) :116-20 . https://doi.org/10. 1016 /j. ejogrb.2005.07.033.
Wiesenfeld HC, Macio I. The infrequent use of office-based diagnostic tests for vaginitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 181(1) : 39-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9378(99)70433-3 .
Valadkhani Z, Kazemi F, Hassan N, Aghighi Z, Esmaili I, Talebi M. Gene diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates. Iran J Parasitol. 2011 Aug, 6(3):101-6.
Kaydos-Daniels SC, Miller WC, Hoffman I, Banda T, Dzinyemba W, Martinson F et al. Validation of a urine-based PCR-ELISA for use in clinical research settings to detect Trichomonas vaginalis in men. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2003; 41(1):318-23.
. Zhang Z, Kang L, Wang W, Zhao X, Li Y, Xie Q et al. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in a targeted population in Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China. Parasit Vectors. 2018 Dec;11(1):1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2753-4
Ardalan S, Craig B, Garber EL. Trichomonas vaginalis: The adhesins AP51 and AP65 bind heme and hemoglobin. Exp. Parasitol. 2009 . 121(4) :300-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2008.11.012 .
https://doi.org/10.1 128/JCM.41.1.318-323.2003 .