Recycling of Chicken Egg Shells into Nanopowder: Synthesis, and its Properties

Main Article Content

Saffanah Khuder Mahmood
Ghada Abdulrhman Sultan
Shahbaa Khalil Ebrahim
Ammar Ghanim Mohammed Alhaaik


Increase in unconventional resources of calcium (Ca+2) for fowls, aquaculture and native animals was improved. This work was planned to define the most polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) that take place in the two types of chicken eggshells (local and imported type). In this research, the comparative analysis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) content was approved for nominated eggshells of native strain and imported chicken via Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD) analysis. The results demonstrate that native and imported chicken eggshells comprise calcite morph that had shape between rhombohedral and spherical with distinguished pores distribution in the surface and crystallization size (31) nanometer for local chicken eggshells and (32) nanometer for import chicken eggshells respectively. The authors brief their results that local and import chicken eggshells had the top resources of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mahmood SK, Sultan GA, Ebrahim SK, Alhaaik AGM. Recycling of Chicken Egg Shells into Nanopowder: Synthesis, and its Properties . Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2022 Aug. 1 [cited 2022 Nov. 30];19(4):0759. Available from:


Owuamanam S, Cree D. Progress of bio-calcium carbonate waste eggshell and seashell fillers in polymer composites: a review. J. Compos. Sci. 2020; 4 (70): 1-22.

Ajala EO, Eletta OAA, Ajala MA, et al. Characterization and evaluation of chicken eggshell for use as a bio-resource. Arid Zone J Eng. Tech. Enviro. 2018; 14 (1): 26-4.

Kamkum P, Atiwongsangthong N, Muanghlua R, et al. Application of chicken eggshell waste as a starting material for synthesizing calcium niobate (Ca4Nb2O9) powder. Ceram. Int. 2015; 41 (Suppl. S1): S69–S75.

Awogbemi O, Inambao F, Onuh EI. Modification and characterization of chicken eggshell for possible catalytic applications. Heliyon 2020; 6: e05283.

Fecheyr-Lippens D, Nallapaneni A, Shawkey MD. Exploring the use of unprocessed waste chicken eggshells for uv-protective applications. Sustainability. 2017; 9: 232.

Fecheyr-Lippens DC, Igic B, D’Alba L, et al. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells. Biol. Open 2015; 4:753–9.

Bartter J, Diffey H, Yeung YH, et al. Use of chicken eggshell to improve dietary calcium intake in rural sub‐Saharan Africa. Matern. Child Nutr. 2018; 14 (S3): e12649.

Ueda Y, Taira Z. Effect of anions or food on absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium salts in mice by pharmacokinetics. J Exper Pharma. 2013; 5: 67–1.

Oliveira A, Benelli P, Amante ER. A literature review on adding value to solid residues: egg shells. J Cleaner Prod. 2013; 46: 42–7.

Kingori AM. A Review of the uses of poultry eggshell and shell membranes. Int J Poult Sci. 2011; 10 (11): 908-2.

Szeleszczuk L, Pisklak DM, Kuras M, et al. In vitro dissolution of calcium carbonate from the chicken eggshell: on the study of calcium bioavailability. Int J Food Proper. 2015; 18: 2791–9.

Neunzehn J, Szuwart T, Wiesmann HP. Eggshells as natural calcium carbonate source in combination with hyaluronan as beneficial additives for bone graft materials, an in vitro study. Head & Face Med. 2015; 11:12.

Hincke MT, Nys Y, Gautron J, et al. The eggshell: structure, composition and mineralization. Frontiers Bioscie. 2012; 17:1266-80.

Guarderas F, Leavell Y, Sengupta T, et al. Assessment of chicken-egg membrane as a dressing for wound healing. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2016; 29 (3):131-40.

Ahmed TA, Suso HP, Hincke MT. In-depth comparative analysis of the chicken eggshell membrane proteome. J proteomics. 2017; 155: 49-62.

Vuong TT, Rønning SB, Ahmed TAE, et al. Processed eggshell membrane powder regulates cellular functions and increase MMP-activity important in early wound healing processes. PLOS ONE. 2018.

Macneil J. Composition of egg shell. Egg industry. 1997; 102: 15-7.

Murakami FS, Rodrigues PO, De Campos CMT, et al. Physicochemical study of CaCO3 from egg shells. Ciênc Tecnol Aliment Campinas. 2007; 27 (3): 658-2.

Mahmood SK, Zakaria MZAB, Razak ISA, et al. Preparation and characterization of cockle shell aragonite nanocomposite porous 3D scaffolds for bone repair. Biochem Biophys Reports 2017; 10: 237–51.

Mahmood SK, Razak ISA, Ghaji MS, et al. In vivo evaluation of the novel nanocomposite porous 3D scaffold in a rabbit model: histological analysis. Int J Nanomed. 2017; 12: 8587—98.

Isa T, Zakaria ZAB, Rukayadi Y, et al. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-encapsulated cockle shells calcium carbonate (aragonite) nanoparticles and its biocompatability in macrophage J774A. Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17 (5):713.

Mahmood SK, Zakaria ZAB, Razak ISA, et al. In Vivo evaluation of the novel nanocomposite porous 3d scaffold in a rabbit model: hematology and biochemistry analysis. Iraqi J Vet Sci. 2019; 32 (2):219-30.

Islam KN, Bakar MZBA, Ali ME, et al. A novel method for the synthesis of calcium carbonate (aragonite) nanoparticles from cockle shells. Powder Technol. 2013; 235: 70–5.

Ibrahim SM, Mahmood SK, Razak ISA, et al. Characterization and in vitro evaluation of a novel coated nanocomposite porous 3d scaffold for bone repair. Iraqi J Vet Sci. 2019; 33 (1): 157-73.

Hammadi NI, Abba Y, Hezmee MNM, et al. Formulation of a sustained release Docetaxel loaded cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticles against breast cancer. Pharma Res. 2017; 34 (6): 1193–03.

Mahmood SK, Razak ISA, Ibrahim SM, et al. In Vivo evaluation of the novel nanocomposite porous 3d scaffold in a rabbit model. Indian J Sci Tech. 2018; 11(19):1-15.

Venkateswarlu K, Sreekanth D, Sandhyarani M, et al. X-ray peak profile analysis of nanostructured hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinform. 2012; 2 (6): 389-3.

Mahmood SK, Razak ISA, Yusof LM, et al. In vitro evaluation of the cockle shells aragonite nanocomposite porous 3d scaffolds for bone repair. 6th Int Conf Nanotech, Adv Mater Applica. Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Research Center, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq. Available online at Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Research Centre, Proceeding Articles Book 4, 2018, special issue: 1020-44.

Jaji AZ, Zakaria ZAB, Mahmud R, et al. Safety assessments of subcutaneous doses of aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals in rats. J Nanopart Res. 2017; 19:175.

Kunanuruksapong TR, Sirivat A. Preparation and properties of calcium oxide from eggshells via calcination. Mater Sci-Poland, 2012; 30 (4): 313-22.

Fajrah MC. Identification of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) characteristics from different kinds of poultry eggshells using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR). 7th Int Conf Phys Applica. 2014 (ICOPIA 2014): 138-2.

Dolińska B, Jelińska M, Szulc-Musio B, et al. Use of Eggshells as a Raw Material for Production of Calcium Preparations. Czech J. Food Sci., 2016; 34 (4): 313–7.

Shwetha A, Dhananjaya, Kumara SM, et al. Comparative study on calcium content in egg shells of different birds. Int J Zoo Stu. 2018; 3 (4): 31-33.

Dizaj SM, Sharifi S, Ahmadian E, et al. An update on calcium carbonate nanoparticles as cancer drug/gene delivery system. Expert Opinion Drug Deliv. 2019: 1587408.

Solomon S E. Egg and eggshell quality. Wolfe Publishing Ltd., London, England. 1991.

Dennis JE, Xiao SQ, Agarwal M. Microstructure of matrix and mineral components of eggshells from white Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus). J Morpho. 1996; 228: 287-06.

Arunlertaree C, Kaewsomboon W, Kumsopa A et al. Removal of lead from battery manufacturing waste water by egg shell. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol. 2007; 29: 857–68.

Dleam E A, Kareem S H. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a system for ciprofloxacin drug delivery; kinetic of adsorption and releasing. Baghdad Sci J. 2021; 18 (2): 0357.

Abdulghani A J, Al-Ogedy W M. Synthesis and characterization of multishapes of fe3o4 nanoparticle by solve-hydrothermal method using microwave radiation. Baghdad Sci J. 2016; 13 (2): 0331.

Ayal A K. Enhanced photocurrent of Titania nanotube photoelectrode decorated with CdS nanoparticles. Baghdad Sci J. 2018; 15 (1): 0057.

Kalita J, Verma S. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bioceramic using microwave radiation: Synthesis and characterization. Mater Sci Eng. C 2010; 30: 295

Syafaat FY, Master Thesis, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2017. Gary D. Butcher, D.V.M., Ph.D., professor; and Richard Miles, Ph.D., professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville FL 32611.