Main Article Content
The present study was performed to spotlight the potential role of soil bacteria in the Al-Rumaila oil field as a bioindicator of heavy metals pollution. For this purpose, nine soil samples were collected from different sites, with 20cm depth, to assess the pollution status depending on the total and available concentrations of heavy metals. The result indicates pollution of the studied soils with the following metals: Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb. The mean of total concentration for all studied metals was higher than the allowed maximum limit based on the international limit:(3.394, 3.994, 39.993, 8844.979,150.372, and 103.347 µg/g), respectively. While measuring the total Metal concentration is important in determining the degree of pollution in the environment; it cannot be depended to determine their impact on the living organisms. In the present study the means of available concentration of studied metals were as follows: 0.015, 0.787, 0.021, 0.515, and4.304 µg/g. respectively, which were lower than their total concentration. Different types of bacterial genera (Serratia marcescens, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus lentus) were isolated from the same soil. And broadcasts through the results their presence in all studied soils. Therefore, the isolated bacteria play a significant role as an indicator of metal pollution in the soil, which was proved through the result of the Minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC), which indicated a high tolerance ability towered these metals.
Published Online First 20/1/2022
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Sumampouw OJ, Risjani Y. Bacteria as Indicators of Environmental Pollution : Review Bacteria as Indicators of Environmental Pollution : Review. Int J Ecosyst. 2014;4(6):251–8.
Fauzi H, Idris KM. The Relationship of CSR and Financial Performance: New Evidence from Indonesian Companies. Issues Soc Environ Account. 2007;1(1):149–59.
Jaafar RS, Abdulnabi ZA, Alhello AZ, Al-saad HT. An integrative study to determine the Bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil. Ecol Environ Conserv. 2019;25(4):35–42.
Bouraie SME and MM El. Role of Bacteria as Bioindicators for Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Groundwater. Life Sci J. 2014;11(8):895–910.
Payment, P. and AL. Pathogens in water: value and limits of correlation with microbial indicators. Groundwater 49:4-11. Groundwater. 2011;49(1):4–11.
Luo Z, Ma J, Chen F, Li X, Zhang S. Effects of Pb smelting on the soil bacterial community near a secondary lead plant. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(5):1–16.
Elizabeth CN, Victoria MY, Nkechi EE, Godwin BO. Isolation and characterization of heavy metal tolerant bacteria from Panteka stream, Kaduna, Nigeria and their potential for bioremediation. African J Biotechnol. 2017;16(1):32–40.
Luo LY, Xie LL, Jin DC, Mi BB, Wang DH, Li XF, et al. Bacterial community response to cadmium contamination of agricultural paddy soil. Appl Soil Ecol. 2019;139(March):100–6.
Šrut, M., Menke, S., Höckner, M., & Sommer S. Earthworms and cadmium - Heavy metal resistant gut bacteria as indicators for heavy metal pollution in soils?. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;171:843–53.
Sparks DL, Page AL, Helmke PA, Loeppert RH, Soltanpour PN, Tabatabai MA, Johnston CT SM. Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy: oil Science Society of America Book Series Number 5,; 1996. 1390 p.
Nelson D, Sommers L. Chemical Methods Soil Science Society of America Book Series. In: Soil Science Society of America [Internet]. 1996. p. 961–1010. Available from: https://www.waterboards.ca.gov/waterrights/water_issues/programs/bay_delta/california_waterfix/exhibits/docs/Islands/II_41.pdf
Gaudino S, Galas C, Belli M, Barbizzi S, De Zorzi P, Jaćimović R, et al. The role of different soil sample digestion methods on trace elements analysis: A comparison of ICP-MS and INAA measurement results. Accredit Qual Assur. 2007;12(2):84–93.
Parizanganeh A, Hajisoltani P, Zamani A. Concentration, distribution and comparison of total and bioavailable metals in top soils and plants accumulation in Zanjan Zinc Industrial Town-Iran. Procedia Environ Sci [Internet]. 2010;2(5):167–74. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2010.10.020
Andrea M, Huët L, Puchooa D. Bioremediation of heavy metals from aquatic environment through microbial processes: A potential role for probiotics? J Appl Biol Biotechnol. 2017;5(6):14–23.
Jaafar RS, Yousif A, Abdulnabi ZA, Alhello AZ, Al-Saad HT. An integrative study to determine the bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil. Ecol Environ Conserv. 2019;25(4):1524–31.
Hameed A, Al-Obaidy MJ, Al-Anbari R, Ali FHA. A Comparative Study of Total and Bioavailable Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations and Distributions among Different Land Use Types within Baghdad City. &Tech J. 2017;34(4):685–97.
Al-ameri MA. Soil and Plants Pollution with Some Heavy Metals Caused by Al-Daura Refinery Emissions on the Surrounded Region. University of Technology; 2011.
Salah EAM, Yassin KH, Abd-alsalaam S. Level,distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in urban community garden soils in Baghdad City, Iraq. Int J Sci &Engineering Res. 2017;6(10):1646–52.
EPA. Soil Screening Guidance : Technical Background Document Soil Screening Guidance : Technical Background Document. 1996.
CEPA CEP. Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health. 2007;13 pages.
Fayad N, Al-Noor TH, Al-Noor NH. Analysis and Assessment of Essential Toxic Heavy Metals , PH and EC in Ishaqi River and Adjacent Soil. Adv Phys Theor Appl [Internet]. 2013;16(5):25–37. Available from: www.iiste.org
Sulaivany ROH, Al-Mezori HAM. Heavy metals concentration in selected vegetables grown in Dohuk City, Kurdistan region, Iraq. WIT Trans Built Environ. 2007;94:255–65.
Ali HA. Heavy Metals Concentrations in Surface Soils of the Haweja Area South Western of Kirkuk, IRAQ. J Kirkuk Univ Stud. 2007;2(3):35–48.
Salah E, Turki A. Heavy Metals Concentration in Urban Soils of Fallujah City , Iraq. J Environ Earth Sci. 2013;3(11):100–12.
Koukina* S, Lobus N, Department. Chemical Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Sediments from a Typical Tropical Estuary(South Vietnam). Arch Bioequiv Bioavailab. 2018;10(1):1–9.
Kiciñska, A. J., Smreczak, B. and Jadczyszyn J. Soil bioavailability of cadmium, lead, and zinc in areas of Zn-Pb ore mining and processing (Bukowno, Olkusz). J Ecol Eng. 2019;20(1):84–92.
Yilmaz. Metal tolerance and biosorption capacity of Bacillus circulans strain EB1. Res Microbiol. 2003;154(6):409–15.
Mishra A, Mishra KP. Bacterial Response as Determinant of Oxidative Stress by Heavy Metals and Antibiotic. J Innov Pharm Biol Sci. 2018;2(3):229–39.
Afzal AM, Rasool MH, Waseem M, Aslam B. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance and biosorptive potential of Klebsiella variicola isolated from industrial effluents. AMB Express. 2017;7(184):1–9.