A Word Cloud Model based on Hate Speech in an Online Social Media Environment

Main Article Content

Valentina Ibrahim
Juhaid Abu Bakar
Nor Hazlyna Harun
Alaa Fareed Abdulateef


Social media is known as detectors platform that are used to measure the activities of the users in the real world. However, the huge and unfiltered feed of messages posted on social media trigger social warnings, particularly when these messages contain hate speech towards specific individual or community. The negative effect of these messages on individuals or the society at large is of great concern to governments and non-governmental organizations. Word clouds provide a simple and efficient means of visually transferring the most common words from text documents. This research aims to develop a word cloud model based on hateful words on online social media environment such as Google News. Several steps are involved including data acquisition and pre-processing, feature extraction, model development, visualization and viewing of word cloud model result. The results present an image in a series of text describing the top words. This model can be considered as a simple way to exchange high-level information without overloading the user's details.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ibrahim V, Abu Bakar J, Harun NH, Abdulateef AF. A Word Cloud Model based on Hate Speech in an Online Social Media Environment. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2021Jun.20 [cited 2021Aug.3];18(2(Suppl.):0937. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/6214


Jurafsky D. Speech & language processing. Pearson Education India. 2000.

Jurafsky D, Manning C. Natural language processing. Instructor. 2012;212(998),3482.

John M, Marbach E, Lohmann S, Heimerl F, Ertl T. MultiCloud: Interactive word cloud visualization for multiple texts. Proceeding of Graphical Interface. 2018;25–32.

Jain A, Kulkarni G, Shah V. Natural language processing. Int. J. Comput. Sci. Eng. 2018;6(1).

Milum J. SAS® Visual Analytics: Text Analytics Using Word Clouds. Atlanta, GA, USA. 2018

KopparthiHarika M, Mounika IC, Anuradha T, Sharon P. Hate Speech Detection in Tweets using Machine Learning Algorithm. International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology. 2020;4(12),558-561.

Lepki L. How Do You Create a Word Cloud? ProWriting Aid. 2020. https://prowritingaid.com/art/425/What-the-Heck-is-a-Word-Cloud-and-Why-Would-I-UseOne.aspx#:~:text=Google%20says%20a%20word%20cloud, appears%20in%20 your%20word%20cloud

Davidson T, Warmsley D, Macy M, Weber I. Automated hate speech detection and the problem of offensive language. In Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. 2017;11(1).

Pereira-Kohatsu JC, Quijano-Sánchez L, Liberatore F, Camacho-Collados M. Detecting and monitoring hate speech in Twitter. Sensors. 2019;19(21),4654.

Dohmen C. Detecting Hate Speech in Social Media-A Machine Learning Approach. [Doctoral dissertation]:Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg. 2019.

ProPublica. Retrieved from https://www.propublica.org/datastore/dataset/ documenting-hate-news-index. 2020.

Martins R, Gomes M, Almeida JJ, Novais P, & Henriques P. Hate speech classification in social media using emotional analysis. In 2018 7th Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems (BRACIS). IEEE. 2018;61- 66.

Malmasi S, & Zampieri M. Detecting hate speech in social media. 2017. arXiv preprint arXiv:1712.06427.

Wang Y, Chu X, Bao C, Zhu L, Deussen O, Chen B, & Sedlmair M. Edwordle: Consistency-preserving word cloud editing. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics. 2017;24(1),647-656.

Jin Y. Development of word cloud generator software based on Python. Procedia Engineering. 2017;174,788-792.

Felix C, Franconeri S, Bertini E. Taking word clouds apart: An empirical investigation of the design space for keyword summaries. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics. 2017;24(1),657-666.

Mossie Z, Wang JH. Social network hate speech detection for Amharic language. Computer Science & Information Technology. 2018;41-55.

Vanschoren J, Van Rijn JN, Bischl B, Torgo L. OpenML: networked science in machine learning. ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter. 2014;15(2),49-60.

Salminen J, Hopf M, Chowdhury SA, Jung SG, Almerekhi H, Jansen BJ. Developing an online hate classifier for multiple social media platforms. Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences. 2020;10(1),1.

Vu D. Generating WordClouds in Python. Datacamp community. 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.datacamp.com/community/tutorials/wordcloud-python

Foong NW. Create Custom Word Clouds in Python. Better programming. 2020. Retrieved from https://medium.com/better-programming/create-custom-word-clouds-in python -841563933e73

NikhilkumarSingh. Wordcloud-example. 2018. Retrieved from https://raw.githubusercontent.com /nikhilkumarsingh/ wordcloud-example/master/cloud.png.