Main Article Content
The electrospun nanofibers membranes have gained considerable interest in water filtration applications. In this work, the fabrication and characterization of the electrospun polyacrylonitrile-based nonwoven nanofibers membrane are reported. Then, the membrane's performance and antifouling properties were evaluated in removing emulsified oil using a cross flow filtration system. The membranes were fabricated with different polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentrations (8, 11, and 14 wt. %) in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent resulted in various average fiber sizes, porosity, contact angle, permeability, oil rejection, and antifouling properties. Analyses of surface morphology of the fabricated membranes before and after oil removal revealed increasing the fiber size, decreasing the fouling amount, and increasing the permeate flux. On the other hand, decreasing the fiber size resulting in increases the oil rejection. It was observed that 11 wt. % PAN based nonwoven nanofiber membrane was the optimum membrane for emulsified oil removal due to its good porosity, permeability with good oil rejection. In addition, fouled nonwoven nanofiber membrane cleaning was done by backwashing technique using warm distilled water which was effective in retaining the membrane permeability and oil rejection for 7 times. The obtained results confirmed an efficient performance of the fabricated nanofibers membrane for oil-water separation with oil rejection percentage of 92.5% and a permeate flux of 120 LMH.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Hassan ML, Fadel SM, Abouzeid RE, Abou-Elseoud WS, Hassan EA, Berglund L, et al. Water Purification Ultrafiltration Membranes Using Nanofibers from Unbleached and Bleached Rice Straw. Sci Rep. 2020; 10: (1).
Waisi BIH, Karim UF, Augustijn DCM, Al-Furaiji MHO, Hulscher SJM. A Study on the Quantities and Potential Use of Produced Water in Southern Iraq. Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply 2015; 15 (2): 370.
Zhang J, Xue Q, Pan X, Jin Y, Lu W, Ding D, et al. Graphene Oxide/Polyacrylonitrile Fiber Hierarchical-Structured Membrane for Ultra-Fast Microfiltration of Oil-Water Emulsion. Chem Eng J. 2017; 307: 643–649.
Waisi B, Arena JT, Benes NE, Nijmeijer A, McCutcheon JR. Activated Carbon Nanofiber Nonwoven for Removal of Emulsified Oil from Water. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2020; 296:109966.
Al-Furaiji MHO, Karim UFA, Augustijn DCM, Waisi BIH, Hulscher SJM. Evaluation of Water Demand and Supply in the South of Iraq. J. Water Reuse Desal. 2016; 6 (1): 214–226.
Jasim BA, Al-furaiji MH, Sakran AI, Abdullah WI. A Competitive Study Using UV and Ozone with H2O2 in Treatment of Oily Wastewater. Baghdad Sci J. 2020;17 (4): 1177–1182.
Rahman NSA, Yhaya MF, Azahari B, Ismail WR. Utilisation of Natural Cellulose Fibres in Wastewater Treatment. Cellulose 2018; 25 (9): 4887–4903.
Al-Shamrani AA, James A, Xiao H. Separation of Oil from Water by Dissolved Air Flotation. Colloids Surf, A Physicochem Eng Asp. 2002; 209 (1): 15–26.
Suzuki Y, Maruyama T. Removal of Emulsified Oil from Water by Coagulation and Foam Separation. Sep Sci Technol. 2005; 40 (January): 3407–3418.
Hafiz AA, El-Din HM, Badawi AM. Chemical Destabilization of Oil-in-Water Emulsion by Novel Polymerized Diethanolamines. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2005; 284 (1): 167–175.
Wang X, Yu J, Sun G, Ding B. Electrospun Nanofibrous Materials: A Versatile Medium for Effective Oil/Water Separation. Mater Today. 2016; 19 (7): 403–414.
Wang Z, Wu A, Ciacchi LC, Wei G. Recent Advances in Nanoporous Membranes for Water Purification. Nanomaterials 2018; 8 (2): 65.
Wang Q, Cui J, Liu S, Gao J, Lang J, Li C, et al. Facile Preparation of Halloysite Nanotube-Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Membranes for Highly Efficient Oil/Water Emulsion Separation. J Mater Sci. 2019; 54 (11): 8332–8345.
Chen W, Su Y, Zheng L, Wang L, Jiang Z. The Improved Oil/Water Separation Performance of Cellulose Acetate-Graft-Polyacrylonitrile Membranes. J Memb Sci. 2009; 337: 98–105.
Shakiba M, Nabavi SR, Emadi H, Faraji M. Development of a Superhydrophilic Nanofiber Membrane for Oil/Water Emulsion Separation via Modification of Polyacrylonitrile/Polyaniline Composite. Polym AdvTechnol. 2020; October: 1–16.
Kiss ZL, Kertész S, Beszédes S, Hodúr C, László Z. Investigation of Parameters Affecting the Ultrafiltration of Oil-in-Water Emulsion Wastewater. Desalin. Water Treat. 2013; 51 (25–27): 4914–4920.
Al-furaiji M, Arena JT, Ren J, Benes N, Nijmeijer A, McCutcheon JR. Triple-Layer Nanofiber Membranes for Treating High Salinity Brines Using Direct Contact Membrane Distillation. Membranes (Basel). 2019; 9 (60): 2–10.
Wang R, Liu Y, Li B, Hsiao BS, Chu B. Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for High Flux Microfiltration. J Memb Sci. 2012; 392–393: 167–174.
Waisi BI. Carbonized Copolymers Nonwoven Nanofibers Composite : Surface Morphology and Fibers Orientation. IJCPE. 2019; 20 (2): 11–15.
Beauregard N, Al-furaiji M, Dias G, Worthington M, Suresh A, Srivastava R, et al. Enhancing ICVD Modification of Electrospun Membranes for Membrane Distillation Using a 3D Printed Scaffold. Polymers (Basel). 2020; 12: 2074.
Wang X, Chen X, Yoon K, Fang D, Hsiao BS, Chu B. High Flux Filtration Medium Based on Nanofibrous Substrate with Hydrophilic Nanocomposite Coating. Environ. Sci Technol. 2005; 39 (19): 7684–7691.
Zhang G, Zhan Y, He S, Zhang L, Zeng G, Chiao YH. Construction of Superhydrophilic/ Underwater Superoleophobic Polydopamine-Modified h-BN/Poly(Arylene Ether Nitrile) Composite Membrane for Stable Oil-Water Emulsions Separation. Polym Adv Technol. 2020; 31 (5): 1007–1018.
Khan Z, Kafiah F, Shafi HZ, Nufaiei F, Furquan SA, Matin A. Morphology, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characteristics of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Nanofiber Mats. Int J Adv Eng Nano Technol. 2015; 2 (3): 2347–6389.
Wu YJ, Xiao CF, Zhao J. Preparation of an Electrospun Tubular PU/GE Nanofiber Membrane for High Flux Oil/Water Separation. Rsc Adv. 2019; 9 (58): 33722–33732.
Lee E, Kyoungjin A, He T, Chul Y, Kyong H. Electrospun nanofiber membranes incorporating fluorosilane-coated TiO2 nanocomposite for direct contact membrane distillation. J Membr Sci. 2016; 520: 145–154.
Chakrabarty B, Ghoshal AK, Purkait MK. Ultrafiltration of Stable Oil-in-Water Emulsion by Polysulfone Membrane. J Membr Sci. 2008; 325: 427–437.
Chen W, Su Y, Zheng L, Wang L, Jiang Z. The Improved Oil/Water Separation Performance of Cellulose Acetate-Graft-Polyacrylonitrile Membranes. J Membr Sci. 2009; 337 (1–2): 98–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2009.03.029.
Al-Naemi AN, Abdul-majeed MA, Al-furaiji MH, Ghazi IN. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanofibers Membranes Using Electrospinning Technology for Oil Removal. Baghdad Sci J. 2021; 18 (4): 1338–1343.
Ying Q, Lili Z, Haixiang S, Peng L. PAN/PS Elctrospun Fibers for Oil Spill Cleanup. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater Sci Eng. 2014; 62: 7.
Al-furaiji M, Kadhom M, Kalash K, Waisi B, Albayati N. Preparation of Thin-Film Composite Membranes Supported with Electrospun Nanofibers for Desalination by Forward Osmosis. Drink. water Eng Sci. 2020; 13: 51–57.
Wang Y, Gong X. Special Oleophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces: Approaches, Mechanisms, and Applications. J Mater Chem. A 2017; 5 (8): 3759–3773.
Xu CL, Wang YZ. Novel Dual Superlyophobic Materials in Water-Oil Systems: Under Oil Magneto-Fluid Transportation and Oil-Water Separation. J Mater Chem A. 2018; 6 (7): 2935–2941.
Waisi BI, Manickam SS, Benes NE, Nijmeijer A, McCutcheon JR. Activated Carbon Nanofiber Nonwovens: Improving Strength and Surface Area by Tuning the Fabrication Procedure. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2019; 58: 4084–4089.
Waisi BI, Al-jubouri SM, Mccutcheon JR. Fabrication and Characterizations of Silica Nanoparticle Embedded Carbon Nanofibers. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2019; 58: 4462–4467.
Mansourizadeh A, Azad AJ. Preparation of Blend Polyethersulfone/Cellulose Acetate/ Polyethylene Glycol Asymmetric Membranes for Oil-Water Separation. J Polym Res. 2014; 21: 375.
Faccini M, Borja G, Boerrigter M, Martin DM, Crespiera SM, Vazquez-Campos S, et al. Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Membranes for Filtration of Nanoparticles from Water. J Nanomater. 2015; 2015:1–9.
Liu S, Kok M, Kim Y, Barton JL, Brushett FR, Gostick J. Evaluation of Electrospun Fibrous Mats Targeted for Use as Flow Battery Electrodes. J Electrochem Soc. 2017; 164 (9): 2038–2048.
Moghadam BH, Hasanzadeh M. Predicting Contact Angle of Electrospun PAN Nanofiber Mat Using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology. Adv Polym Technol. 2013; 32 (4): 1–11.
Bae J, Kim KS, Choi, H. Effect of Asymmetric Wettability in Nanofiber Membrane by Electrospinning Technique on Separation of Oil/Water Emulsion. Chemosphere. 2018; 204: 235–242.
Qiu YR, Hong Z, and Zhang QX. Treatment of Stable Oil/Water Emulsion by Novel Felt-Metal Supported PVA Composite Hydrophilic Membrane Using Cross Flow Ultrafiltration. Trans. Nonferrous Met Soc C. 2009; 19 (3): 773–777.
Abdel-aty AAR, Aziz YSA, Ahmed RMG, Elsherbiny IMA, Panglisch S, Ulbricht M, et al. High Performance Isotropic Polyethersulfone Membranes for Heavy Oil-in-Water. Sep Purif Technol. 2020; 253: 117467.
Ebrahimi M, Willershausen D, Ashaghi K, Engel L, Placido L, Mund P, et al. Investigations on the Use of Different Ceramic Membranes for Efficient Oil- Field Produced Water Treatment. Desalination 2010; 250: 991–996.
Peng H, Tremblay AY. Membrane Regeneration and Filtration Modeling in Treating Oily Wastewaters. J Memb Sci. 2008; 324 (1–2): 59–66.