Determination of Nickel and Cobalt in Cosmetic Products Marketed in Iraq Using Spectrophotometric and Microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Device (µPADs) Platform

Main Article Content

Ekhlas A. Abdulkareem
Jwan O. Abdulsattar


Two quantitative, environment-friendly and easily monitored assays for Ni (II) and Co (III) ions analysis in different lipstick samples collected from 500-Iraqi dinars stores located in Baghdad were introduced. The study was based on the reaction of nickel (II) ions with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) reagent and the reaction of cobalt (III) ions with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (NN) reagent to produce colored products. The color change was measured by spectrophotometric method at 565 nm and 430 nm for Ni and Co, respectively, with linear calibration graphs in the concentration range 0.25-100 mg L-1 (Ni) and 0.5-100 mg L-1 (Co) and LOD and LOQ of 0.11 mg L-1 and 0.36 mg L-1 (Ni), and 0.15 mg L-1 and 0.49 mg L-1 (Co). The UV/VIS data was compared to the results obtained by a novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) platform offering in-situ and cost-effect assay with a similar calibration graph with LOD and LOQ of 0.21 mg L-1 and 0.70 mg L-1 (Ni), and 0.22 mg L-1 and 0.75 mg L-1 (Co). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated no significant difference between the UV/VIS, µPAD, and standard atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) assay Ftab= 3.46 is much higher than FStat = 0.13 (Ni) and Ftab= 3.46 is much higher than FStat = 0.02 (Co). Also, a good correlation between results via the three methods was found. Thus, the µPAD platform offers a solid base for providing valuable information outside centralized laboratories.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Abdulkareem EA, Abdulsattar JO. Determination of Nickel and Cobalt in Cosmetic Products Marketed in Iraq Using Spectrophotometric and Microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Device (µPADs) Platform. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2022Jun.26];:1286. Available from:


Zakir SN, Ihsanullah I, Shah MT, Iqbal Z,Ahmad A . Comparison of Heavy and Trace Metals Levels in Soil of Peshawar Basin at Different Time Intervals. J.Chem.Soc.Pak. 2010; 31(6): 246.

Ullah H, Noreen S, Fozia, Rehman A, Waseem A, Zubair S, et al. Comparative study of heavy metals content in cosmetic products of different countries marketed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Arab. J. Chem. 2017;10(1):10-18.

Zulaikha S, Norkhadijah S, Praveena S. Hazardous ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products and health concern: A review. Public Health Res.2015;5(1):7-15.

Alam MF, Akhter M, Mazumder B, Ferdous A, Hossain MD, Dafader NC, et al. Assessment of some heavy metals in selected cosmetics commonly used in Bangladesh and human health risk. J Anal. Sci. Technol. 2019;10(2):1-8.

Okereke J, Udebuani A, Ezeji E, Obasi K, Nnoli M. Possible health implications associated with cosmetics: a review.SJPH. 2015;3(5-1):58-63.

Oklo AD, Enenche DE, Aondoakaa MAM. Heavy Metals in Some Lipstick products marketed in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State Nigeria. Int. j. agric. environ. biotechnol. 2020;5(2):342-346.

López-López M, Özbek N, García-Ruiz C. Confocal Raman spectroscopy to trace lipstick with their smudges on different surfaces. Talanta.2014;123:135-139.

Wang B, Su Y, Tian L, Peng S, Ji R. Heavy metals in face paints: Assessment of the health risks to Chinese opera actors. Sci Total Environ. 2020; 724, 138163.

Zhao D, Li J, Li C, Juhasz AL, Scheckel KG, Luo J, et al. Lead relative bioavailability in lip products and their potential health risk to women. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016;50(11): 6036-6043.

Abdulsattar J. Application of Chlordiazepoxide as a Complex with Palladium for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Benzodiazepine Drug. Al- Mustansiriya J. Sci. 2008;19(3): 52-58.

Al-Abachi M, Abdulsattar J. Kinetic spectrophotometric methods for the determination of amoxicillin in pharmaceutical preparation. Iraqi J. Sci. 2012 .53(1):8-16.

Abdulsattar J. Exploiting the diazotization reaction of 4-minoacetophenone for Methyldopa determination. Baghdad Sci. J . 2014;11(1):139-146.

Alaallah N , Ahmed S, Hussein H. Determination of Sulfacetamide Sodium in Pure and Their Pharmaceutical Formulations by Using Cloud Point Extraction Method. Baghdad Sci.J. 2021; 18(3):575-582.

Abdulkareem EA, Abdulsattar J, Abdulsattar B. Iron (II) Determination in Lipstick Samples using Spectrophotometric and Microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Device (µPADs) Platform via Complexation Reaction with Iron Chelator 1, 10-phenanthroline: A Comparative Study. Baghdad Sci.J . 2022; 19(2): 355-367.

Fu L, Wang Y. Detection methods and applications of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. Trends Analyt Chem. 2018;107:196-211.doi:

Hamidon NN , Hong Y, Salentijn GI, Verpoorte E. Water-based alkyl ketene dimer ink for user-friendly patterning in paper microfluidics Anal. Chim. Acta. 2018;1000:180-190,doi: .

Lopez-Ruiz N, Curto VF, Erenas MM, Benito-Lopz F, Diamond D, Palma AJ, et al. Smartphone-Based Simultaneous pH and Nitrite Colorimetric Determination for Paper Microfluidic Devices. Anal. Chem. 2014;86(19):9554-9562.

Akyazi T, Basabe-Desmonts L, Benito-Lopez F. Review on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices towards commercialisation. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2018;1001:1-17. doi:

Sriram G, Bhat MP, Patil P, Uthappa UT, Jung HY, Altalhi T, et al. Paper-based microfluidic analytical devices for colorimetric detection of toxic ions: A review. Trends Analyt Chem. 2017;93:212-227. doi:

Akyazi T, Tudor A, Diamond D, Basabe-Desmonts L, Florea L, Benito-Lopez F. Driving flows in microfluidic paper-based analytical devices with a cholinium based poly(ionic liquid) hydrogel. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2018;261: 372-378. doi:

Yamada K, Shibata H, Suzuki K, Citterio D. Toward practical application of paper-based microfluidics for medical diagnostics: state-of-the-art and challenges. Lab Chip. 2017,7:1206-1249.

Majors CE , Smith CA , Natoli ME, Kundrod KA, Richards-Kortum R. Point-of-care diagnostics to improve maternal and neonatal health in low-resource settings. Lab Chip. 2017; 17(20): 3351-3387.

Ota R, Yamada K, Suzuki K, Citterio D. Quantitative evaluation of analyte transport on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). Analyst. 2018; 143, 643-653.

Almeida MI, Jayawardane BM, Kolev SD, McKelvie ID. Developments of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for water analysis: A review. Talanta. 2018;15:176-190. doi: .

Qi J, Li B, Wang X, Zhang Z, Whang Z, Han J, et al. Three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic chip device for multiplexed fluorescence detection of Cu2+ and Hg2+ ions based on ion imprinting technology. . Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2017; 251: 224-233.doi: .

Devadhasan JP, Kim J. chemically functionalized paper-based microfluidic platform for multiplex heavy metal detection. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2018;273: 18-24. .

Sun X, Li B, Qi A, Tian C, Han J, Shi Y, et al. Improved assessment of accuracy and performance using a rotational paper-based device for multiplexed detection of heavy metals. Talanta. 2018, 178, 426-431.

Hua MZ, Li S, Wang S, Lu X. Detecting Chemical Hazards in Foods Using Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices (μPADs): The Real-World Application. Micromachines. 2018; 9(1):32.

Carrell C, Kava A, Nguyen M, Menger R, Munshi Z, Call Z, et al. Beyond the lateral flow assay: A review of paper-based microfluidics. Microelectron. Eng. 2019;206:45- 54.

Younas M, Maryam A, Khan M, Nawaz AA, Jaffery SH, Anwar MN, et al. Parametric analysis of wax printing technique for fabricating microfluidic paper-based analytic devices (µPAD) for milk adulteration analysis. Microfluid Nanofluid. 2019; 23(2).

Nnorom IC, Igwe JC, Oji-Nnorom C. Trace metal contents of facial (make-up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria. Afr. j. Biotechnol. 2005; 4(10):1133-1138.

Dawson A. Paper Microfluidics for Clinical Diagnostics Using Colourimetric Detection Methods. PhD dissertation. Hull: University of Hull; 2014:225.

Gergov M, Nenonen T, Ojanperä I, Ketola R. Compensation of Matrix Effects in a Standard Addition Method for Metformin in Postmortem Blood Using Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray–Tandem Mass Spectrometry. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2015;39(5): 359-364.

Gazda DB , Fritz JS, Porter M. Determination of nickel (II) as the nickel dimethylglyoxime complex using colorimetric solid phase extraction. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2004; 508(1): 53-59.

Ye Y, Ali A, Yin, X. Cobalt determination with FI-FAAS after on-line sorbent preconcentration using 1-nitroso-2-naphthol. Talanta. 2002; 57(5): 945-951.

Ramkumar J, Chandramouleeswaran S. Metal ligand complexes of alpha nitroso beta naphthol. Biorg Org Chem. 2018; 2(3):160-162.

Van Loon AJ. Analytical atomic absorption spectroscopy: selected methods. 1st ed,Elsevier;2012:348.