Effects of Castor Oil Nanoemulsion Extracted by Hexane on the Fourth Larval stage of Culex quinquefsciatus from Al Hawizeh Marsh/Iraq, and Non- Targeted Organism

Main Article Content

Alla Abd Al Hassan Al Hilfy
Soolaf A. Kathiar
Hazim Idan Al Shammari


           The current study aims to show the importance of plant products as mosquitocides against Culex quinquefasciatus. Castor oil Nanoemulsions were subedit in various ratios including castor oil, ethanol, tween 80, and deionized water by using ultrasonication. Thermodynamic, centrifugation, PH, assay which improved that the formula  of 10 ml  of castor  oil, ethanol  5ml, tween 80 (14 ml) and deionized water 71ml was more stable than other formulas. The stable formula of castor oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Nanoemulsion droplets were spherical in shape and were found to have a Z-average diameter of 87.4nm. A concentration of castor oil nanoemulsion 250, 350, 450, and 550 ppm were tested as larvicidal agents and bulk emulsion 1000, 1500, 2000 , and 2500 ppm were tested also and compared, against the fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Castor oil nanoemulsion exhibited higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. LC50 of castor oil nanoemulsion and castor bulk emulsion were found as 291.46 and 439.19ppm after 72 h, respectively. The toxic effects of castor oil bulk and Nano emulsion was tested against non-target organism Guppy fish and found to be not toxic at the concentration which used in the study.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Al Hilfy AAAH, Kathiar SA, Al Shammari HI. Effects of Castor Oil Nanoemulsion Extracted by Hexane on the Fourth Larval stage of Culex quinquefsciatus from Al Hawizeh Marsh/Iraq, and Non- Targeted Organism. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2022 Dec. 5 [cited 2023 Jan. 28];19(6(Suppl.):1512. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/7451


World Health Organization. Global Programme to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: Progress report, 2019. Wkly. Epidemoiol Rec. 2020; 95: 509-524.

Benelli G. Review: Managing mosquitoes and ticks in a rapidly changing world Facts and trends. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2018 Jun; 26: 921 – 929.

Rueda L M. Global diversity of mosquitoes (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia .2007; 595: 477- 487.

Al-Zaidy Kadhim J L, Parisi Giuliana, Abed Salwan Ali, Salim Mudhafar A. Classification of The Key Functional Diversity of the Marshes of Southern Iraq. J Phys Conf Ser. 2019; 1294. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1294/7/072021.

Albueajee A I, Hassan F M, Douabul A A. Phytoplankton Species Composition and Biodiversity Indices in Auda Marsh- Southern Iraq. Iraqi J Agri Sci. 2020; 51(Special Issue): 217-228.

Oliver JoAnne, Tan Yi, Haight Jamie D, Tober Keith J, Gall Wayne K, Zink Steven D. Spatial and temporal expansions of Eastern equine encephalitis virus and phylogenetic groups isolated from mosquitoes and mammalian cases in New York State from 2013 to 2019. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Aug; 9(1): 1638-1650.

Guo Xiao- xia, Li Chun – xiao, Deng Yong – qiang, Xing Dan, Liu Qin – mei, Wu Qun. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus: a potential vector to transmit Zika virus. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016 Sep; 5(1): e120.

Medeiros Zulma M, Vieira Amanda V B, Xavier Amanda T, Bezerra Gilberto S. N, Lopes Maria de Fátima C, Bonfim Cristine V, et al. Review Lymphatic Filariasis: A Systematic Review on Morbidity and Its Repercussions in Countries in the Americas. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022; 19 (1): 316.DOI:


Turchen Leonardo M, Cosme-Júnior Lírio, Guedes Raul Narciso C. Plant-Derived Insecticides Under Meta-Analyses: Status, Biases, and Knowledge Gap. Insects. 2020; 11 (8), 532; doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080532s. www.mdpi.com/journal/insects.

Yaseen AT, Sulaiman K A. Insecticidal Activity of Some Chemicals of Mosquitoes Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. Baghdad Sci J. 2021 Mar; 18 (1): 716- 721.

Demirak Meryem S¸Sengül, Canpolat Emel. Plant-Based Bioinsecticides for Mosquito Control: Impact on Insecticide Resistance and Disease Transmission. Insects. 2022 Feb; 13 (2): 162-185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13020162.

Mahmoud Dalia M, Abd El-Bar Marah M, Salem Dalia AM, Rady Magda H. Larvicidal potential and ultra-structural changes induced after treatment of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae with some botanical extracted oils. Int J Mosq Rese. 2019; 6(4): 01-09.

Yaseen Aulfat T. The Effect of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extract of Piper nigrum on the Larvae of Culex pipiens molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae). Baghdad J Sci .2020 mar; 17(1): 28-33.

Yeboah Akwasi, Ying Sheng, Lu Jiannong, Xie Yu, Amoanimaa-Dede Hanna, Boateng Kwadwo Gyapong Agyenim, et al. Castor oil (Ricinus communis): a review on the chemical composition and physicochemical properties. J Food Sci Technol. Campinas.2020Jul; 41(sup 2): 399-413. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.19620.

Choi Geun Hyoung, Kim Leesun, Lee Deuk Yeong, Jin Cho long, Lim Sung-Jin, Park Byung Jun, et al. Quantitative analyses of ricinoleic acid and ricinine in Ricinus communis extracts and its biopesticides. J Appl Biol Chem. 2016 Nov; 59(2): 165−169.

Kodjo Tounou Agbeko, Gbenonchi Mawussi, Sadate Amadou, Komi Agboka, Yaovi Gumedzoe, Dieudonne Mawuena. Bio-insecticidal effects of plant extracts and oil emulsions of Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) on the diamondback, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) under laboratory and semi-field conditions. J Appl Bio Sci. 2011; 43: 2899 – 2914.

Mohamed Abdel – Raheem. Nano Essential Oils against cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Chem Tech Res. 2019; 12 (05): 123 – 128.

Ubaid Jenan . Fumigant Toxicity of Ricinus communis L. Oil on Adults and Larva of Some Stored Product Insects. J Natural Sci Res. 2014; 4 (4) :26-29.

Sogan Nish, Kapoor Neera, Singh Himmat, Kala Smirti, Navak A, Nagbal B.N. Larvicidal activity of Ricinus communis extract against mosquitoes. J Vector Borne Dis. 2018 Apr;55: 282 – 290.

Gupta A, Eral H B, Hatton T A, Doyle P S. Nanoemulsions: formation, properties and applications. Soft Matter. 2016; 12: 2826-2841. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5SM02958A.

Jesus Flavia L M, Almeida Fernanda B, Ouarte Jnatas, Oliveira Anna, Crus Rodrigo, Souto Raimundo. Preparation of a Nanoemulsion with Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) Oil by a Low-Energy/Solvent-Free Method and Evaluation of Its Preliminary Residual Larvicidal Activity. Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Jul: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6756793.

Jesser E, Lorenzetti A S, Yeguerman C, Murray A P, Domini C, Wlerdin – Gonzales J. Ultrasound assisted formation of essential oil nanoemulsions: Emerging alternative for Culex pipiens pipiens Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) management. Ultraso Sonochem. 2020 Mar; 61: 104832. https: //doi.org/10.1061/j.ultsonch.2019.104832 .

Pranita S, Amrita B. Nanoemulsions- A Review. Inter J Res Pharma Chem.2016; 6(2): 312 – 322.

PORIM Test Methods. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia Test Methods. Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia. 1995; 83-121.

WHO. 2005. Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. (CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/05.13). https//apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/69101.

Promsiri S, Naksathit A, Kruatrachue M, Thavara U. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non-target fish. Insect Sci. 2006; 13(3): 179 – 188.

Abbott, W.S.A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol .1925; 18: 265-267.

Sogan N, Kapoor N, Kala S, Patanjali P K, Nagpal B N, Vikram K. Larvicidal activity of castor oil Nanoemulsion against malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies. Int J Mosq Res. 2018 Apr.; 5 (3): 01 – 06.

Ramos-López M A, Pérez G S, Rodríguez-Hernández C, Guevara-Fefer P, Zavala-Sánchez M S.Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). African J Biotech.2010; 9(9): 1359-1365.

Sugumar S, Clarke S K, Nirmala M J, Tryagi B K, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus . Bull Entomol Res. 2014 Jan; 104: 393- 402.

Attaullah Zahoor, Zahoor M K, Mubarik M S, Rizvi H, Majeed H N, Zulhussnian M, et al. Insecicidal , Biological and Biochemical Response of Musca domestica ( Diptera :Muscidae ) to some Indigenous Weed Plant Extracts . Saudi J Bio Sci. 2020; 27 (1): 106 – 116.

Govindarajan M, Benelli G. A facile one-pot synthesis of ecofriendly nanoparticles using Carissa carandas: ovicidal and larvicidal potential on malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors. J Clust Sci. 2017; 28:15–36.

Al Qahtani FS, AlShebly MM, Govindarajan M, Senthilmurugan S, Vijayan P, Benelli G .Green and facile biosynthesis of silver nanocomposites using the aqueous extract of Rubus ellipticus leaves: toxicity and oviposition deterrent activity against Zika virus, malaria and filariasis mosquito vectors. J Asia Pac Entomol. 2017; 20: 157– 164.

Benelli Giovanni, Pavela Roman, Petrelli Riccardo, Nzekoue Franks Kamgang , Cappellacci Loredana , Lupidi Giulio ,et al. Carlina oxide from Carlina acaulis root essential oil acts as a potent mosquito larvicide. Ind Crops Prod. 2019 May; 137: 356–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.05.037 .