The Role of Testosterone Level in Women with Osteopenia

Main Article Content

Muzahem Mohialdeen Taha
Ekhlass M. Taha
Suhayla K. Mohammed


There is substantial data supporting the importance of both endogenous and exogenous estrogen in maintaining reproductive health and preventing chronic disease, androgens in women's health are rarely discussed. This is one of the first researches to investigate correlates of blood testosterone concentrations in women with osteopenia, in anticipation of the growing interest in the role of androgens in women's health. A 65 volunteer women were enrolled in the current study, they were divided into two groups, 35 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were in the first group, and the second group contained 30 postmenopausal women without osteopenia as a control. Blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed for testosterone level, also demographic data were collected. The results showed that women with osteopenia have significantly low levels of testosterone as compared to control, the correlation analysis using postmenopausal women with osteopenia as a model showed a significant reversed correlation between testosterone and T score. Cluster analysis results illustrated that T-Score, testosterone and, duration of the postmenopausal were organized in one cluster, which means the three variables were associated with each other in most of the studied cases.  The second cluster included t-score, testosterone and, BMI. Whereas the age factor contributed to the third cluster. Testosterone levels were significantly associated with osteopenia, which could indicate the development of osteoporosis in post-menopause women. Testosterone results were organized in one cluster with T-score and, duration of the postmenopausal. So the three variables were associated with each other in most studied cases. 


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Taha MM, Taha EM, Mohammed SK. The Role of Testosterone Level in Women with Osteopenia. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 1 [cited 2024 Feb. 22];21(2):0422. Available from:


Colón CJ, Molina-Vicenty IL, Frontera-Rodríguez M, García-Ferré A, Rivera BP, Cintrón-Vélez G, Frontera-Rodríguez S. Muscle and Bone Mass Loss in the Elderly Population: Advances in diagnosis and treatment. J Biomed (Sydney, NSW). 2018; 3: 40.

Confortin SC, Ono LM, Marques LP, Ceolin G, d’Orsi E, Barbosa AR. Osteopenia/Osteoporosis and Its Association with Sarcopenia: EpiFloripa Aging Study 2013/2014. Port. J Public Health. 2020; 38(1): 15-22.

Farhan LO, Taha EM, Farhan AM. A Case control study to determine Macrophage migration inhibitor, and N-telopeptides of type I bone collagen Levels in the sera of osteoporosis patients. Baghdad Sci J. 2022; 19(4): 848-854

Barnsley J, Buckland G, Chan PE, Ong A, Ramos AS, Baxter M, et al. Pathophysiology and treatment of osteoporosis: challenges for clinical practice in older people. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2021 Apr; 33(4): 759-73.

Smith T, Batur P. Prescribing testosterone and DHEA: The role of androgens in women. Cleve Clin J Med. 2021 Dec 31; 88(1): 35-43.

Chen JF, Lin PW, Tsai YR, Yang YC, Kang HY. Androgens and androgen receptor actions on bone health and disease: from androgen deficiency to androgen therapy. Cells. 2019 Oct 25; 8(11): 1318.

Lee JS, LaCroix AZ, Wu L, Cauley JA, Jackson RD, Kooperberg C, et al. Associations of serum sex hormonebinding globulin and sex hormone concentrations with hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93(5): 1796–1803.

Davison SL, Bell R, Donath S, Montalto JG, Davis SR. Androgen levels in adult females: changes with age, menopause, and oophorectomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jul 1; 90(7): 3847-53.

Scott A, Newson L. Should we be prescribing testosterone to perimenopausal and menopausal women? A guide to prescribing testosterone for women in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2020 Apr 1; 70(693): 203-4.

Islam RM, Bell RJ, Green S, Davis SR. Effects of testosterone therapy for women: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Syst Rev. 2019 Dec; 8(1): 1-5. .

Ng Tang Fui M, Hoermann R, Bracken K, Handelsman DJ, Inder WJ, Stuckey BG, et al. Effect of testosterone treatment on bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in men: a 2-year RCT. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Aug; 106(8): e3143-58. ,

Rariy CM, Ratcliffe SJ, Weinstein R, Bhasin S, Blackman MR, Cauley JA, et al. Higher serum free testosterone concentration in older women is associated with greater bone mineral density, lean body mass, and total fat mass: the cardiovascular health study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Apr 1; 96(4): 989-96. Epub 2011 Feb 2 .

Lee JS, LaCroix AZ, Wu L, Cauley JA, Jackson RD, Kooperberg C, et al. Associations of serum sex hormone-binding globulin and sex hormone concentrations with hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May 1; 93(5): 1796-803.

Arpaci D, Saglam F, Cuhaci FN, Ozdemir D, Ersoy R, Cakir B. Serum testosterone does not affect bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Arch Endocrinol 2015; 59: 292-6. .

Wang N, Wang L, Huang C. Association of total testosterone status with bone mineral density in adults aged 40–60 years. J Orthop Surg. 2021 Dec; 16(1): 1-7.

Slomski A. Which Postmenopausal Women Should Use Testosterone for Low Sexual Desire? J Am Med Assoc. 2020; 323(6): 493–495.

Hasan BF, Al-karawi IN, Abd Jassim N. Determination of Testosterone level as predictor for insulin resistance in young men with family history of type2 diabetes and hypertension. Baghdad Sci J. 2013; 10(3): 945-953.

Akatsu T. Sex steroids, bone turnover and bone mineral density in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal woman. Environ Health Prev Med. 1998; 3: 123-9 .