Biochemical Action of Vaccines in Iraqi Patients with COVID-19 Infection

Main Article Content

Rasha Zuhair Jasim
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8594-5796

Abstract

      The aim of the present study is to compare the biochemical action of the three vaccines taken in Iraq: Pfizer Biontech, AstraZeneca Oxford and Sinopharm based on biochemical parameters. Seventy COVID-19 Iraqi patients ( males and females ) were participated in the present study and classified into 7 groups : Gc :  COVID-19 patients ( without vaccine ) , Gp1: COVID-19 patients took one dose of Pfizer Biontech, Gp2 : COVID-19 patients took two doses of Pfizer Biontech, Ga1 : patients took one dose of AstraZeneca Oxford vaccine , Ga2: patients took two doses of AstraZeneca Oxford vaccine , Gs1 : patients took one dose of Sinopharm vaccine and Gs2: patients took two doses of Sinopharm vaccine. Patients were compared with healthy subjects (without vaccine) as a control group (Gh). The D-dimer level was highly significantly increased in Gc compared with Gh and was highly significantly decreased in Gp1 , Ga1 , Ga2 , significantly decreased in Gp2 and non-significantly decreased in Gs1 and highly significant increased in Gs2 compared with Gc. CRP level was significantly increased in Gc compared with Gh while it was significantly decreased in Gp1, Gp2, Ga1 , Ga2 , Gs1 , Gs2 compared with Gc. IgG and IgM levels were increased in Gc but decreased after taking vaccines ( except Ga2 for IgG and Gp2 for IgM )   The present study submits a novelty to the field of COVID-19 by highlighting the chemical aspects of vaccines used in Iraq

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Jasim RZ. Biochemical Action of Vaccines in Iraqi Patients with COVID-19 Infection. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2023 Aug. 30 [cited 2023 Oct. 4];20(4(SI):1469-7. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/8750
Section
Special Issue - Current advances in anti-infective strategies

References

Al-Taee SM , Al- Ani AG , Salih MM. COVID-19 Vaccines in Iraq. J Univ Babylon Pure Appl. Sci. 2022 March; 30(1): 63-73. https://doi.org/10.29196/jubpas.v30i1.4071 .

Jawad MJ, Jawad MJ, Hasan IS, Hasan SM, Fatima G. Hadi NR. Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy in Iraqi peoples. Wiad Lek. 2022 April; 75(4P2): 929-937. https://doi.org/10.36740/WLek20220420102 .

Sanyaolu A , Okorie C , Marinkovic A , Patidar R , Younis K , Desai P, et al. Comorbidity and its Impact on Patients with COVID-19. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020 June;2(8):1069-1076. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00363-4 .

Prisco D, Grifoni E. The Role of D-dimer Testing in patients with suspected venous Thromboembolism. Sci Technol Human. 2009 March; 35(1): 50-59. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1214148 .

Ikewaki N , Rao K , Archibold AD, Iwasaki M , Senthilkumar R , Preethy S , et al. Coagulopathy associated with COVID-19 – Perspectives & Perventives strategies using a biological response modifier Glucan. Thromb J. 2020 October; 18(27): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12959-020-00239-6 .

Kareem SH, Al-Bayati MAN, Abood NA. C-reactive protein and cholesterol level in male type 2 diabetic patients. Baghdad Sci J. 2012 March; 9(1): 112-119. https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2012.9.1.113-119 .

Nyabi O, Bentahir M , Ambroise J , Bearzatto B , Chilbani N , Smits B , et al. Diagnostic value of IgM and IgG detection in COVID-19 diagnosis by the mobile laboratory B-LiFE: A massive testing strategy in the Piedmont Region. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 March; 18(7): 3372. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073372 .

Attash HM Al-Obaidy LM, Al- Qazaz HK. Which Type of the Promising COVID-19 Vaccines Produces Minimal Adverse Effects? A Retrospective Cross- Sectional Study. Vaccine. 2022 January; 10(2): 186.

https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccine1002018 .

Xiao N, Abboud S, Mc Carthy DM, Parekh N. Incidentally discovered COVID-19 in low suspicion patients. Emerg Radiol. 2020 April; 27(1): 589-595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10140-020-01792-3 .

Burzynski LC, Humphry M, Pyrillou K, Martin PB, Bennett MR, Clarke MC. The coagulation and Immune systems are directly linked through the activation of Interleukin-1α by thrombin .Immuneity. 2019 April; 50(1): 1033-1042. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.03.003 .

Ghosh K. Coagulation changes in COVID-19 infection and its implication in management. J health Allied Sci. 2021 December; 1(2): 47-53. https://doi.org/10.25259/JHAS_14_2021 .

Antoniak S. The coagulation system in host defense. Res Pract thromb haemost. 2018 April; 2(1): 549-557. https://doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12109 .

Hasan AJ. Relation of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with microalbuminuria as a useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among type1 diabetes mellitus. J. Fac. Med. Baghdad. 2016 April; 58(1):90-93.

Alyassin MM, Al Adili SS. Evaluation of systemic C-reactive protein as a systemic inflammatory marker in the blood for patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures. J. Bagh. Coll. Dent. 2016 September; 28 (3):110-115. https://doi.org/10.12816/0031117 .

Sproston NR, Ashworth JJ. Role of C-reactive Protein at sites on Inflammation and Infection. Front Immunol. 2018 April; 9(754). https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00754 .

Ceylan ME, Unsalver O, Dommez A, Yerutanol FM, Ceylan HZ, et al. A case of myocarditis and isolated hypopotassemia after Biontech Pfizer vaccine for COVID-19. Vaccine. 2022 April; 40 (21): 2897-2898. https:doi//org/10.1016/vaccine.2022-04017.

Do EM, Gries CM. Beyond Homeostasis: Potassium and Pathogenesis during Bacterial Infections. Infect Immun. 2021 July; 89(7): e00766-20. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00766-20 .

Causton HC. SARS-CoV2 infection and the importance of potassium balance. Front Med. 2021 October; 8(744697):10.3389. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.744697 .

Ni W , Yang X , Yang D , Bao J , Li R , Xiao Y , et al. Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in COVID- 19. Crit Care. 2020 July; 24(1): 422. https://doi.org./10.1186/S13054-020-03120-0 .

Silhol F, Sarlon J, Deharo J, Vaisse. Downregulation of ACE2 induces overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin system in COVID-19: should we block the renin angiotensin system. Hypertens Res. 2020 May; 43(1):854-856. https://doi.org./10.1038/s41440-020-0476-3 .

Fiolet T, Kherabi Y, MacDonald C, Ghosn J, Smadja NP. Comparing COVID-19 vaccines for their characteristics, efficacy and effictiveness agaist SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern: a narrative review. Clin Microbiol Infect.

February. 28(2): 202-2021. https://doi.org./10.1016/j.cmi.2021.10.005 .

Moro J, Tome D, Schmidely P, Demersay T, Azzout – Marniche D. Histidine: A systematic Review on metabolism and physiological effects in human and different animal species. J Nutr. 2020 May; 12(1414): 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051414 .

Holecek M. Histidin in Health and Disease: Metabolism, Physiological Importance, and Use as Supplement. J Nutr. 2020 March 22; 12(3): 848. https://doi.org./10.3390/nu12030848 .

O'Donnell VB, Rossjohn J, Wakelam MJ. Phosphplipid signaling in innate immune cells. J Clin invest. 2018 July; 28(7): 2670-2679. https://doi.org./10.1172/JCI97944 .

Gammoh NZ, Rink L. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation. J Nutr. 2017 June; 9(6): 624. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060624 .

Warken AC , Lopes LS , Bottari NB , Glombowsky P , Galli GM , Morsch VM , et al. Mineral supplementation stimulates the immune system and antioxidant responses of dairy cows and reduces somatic cell counts in milk. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2018 October; 90(2): 1649-1658. https://doi.org./10.1590/0001-3765201820170524 .

Tokutake T , Baba H , Shimada Y , Tokeda W , Sato k, Hiroshima Y, et al. Exogenous magnesium chloride reduces the activated partial thromboplastin times on lupus anticoagulant – positive patients. PLOS ONE. 2016 June; 11(6): e0157835. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157835 .

Wang C, Chen LY , Lu QB , Cui F. Vaccineation with the inactivated vaccine (sinopharm BBIBP-CorV) ensures protection against SARS-CoV2 related disease. Vaccine. 2022 June; 10(920). https://doi.org/10.3390vaccine10060920 .

Beck Z, Torres OB, Matyas GR, Lanar DE, Alving CR. Immune response to antigen absorbed to aluminum hydroxide particles: Effects of Co-absorption of ALF or ALFQ2 adjuvant to the aluminum – antigen complex. J control Release. 2018 April; 10(275): 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.02.006 .

Amini Y, Moradi B, Fasihi- Ramadani M. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show strong activity to stimulate Th- 1 immune response against tuberculosis. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2017 September; 45 (7): 1331-1335. https://doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2016.1233111 .

Kooijmen S, Vrieling H, Verhangn L, de Ridder J, de Haan A, Van Riet E , et al. Aluminium hydroxide and aluminium phosohate adjuvant elict a different innate immune response. J Pharm Sci. 2022 April; 111(4): 982-990. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2022.01.014 .

Facciola A, Visalli G, Lagana A, Pietro AD. An overview of vaccine adjuvants: Current Evidence and future Perspectives. Vaccine. 2022 May; 10(819):10.3390. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines/0050819

Licsko I. Coagulation mechanisms – nano – and microprocesses. Water Sci Technol. 2004 December; 50(12): 193-200. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0713 .

Makki HF, Al-Alawy AF, Adnan M. Using Aluminum Refuse as a coagulant in the coagulation and fliocculation Processes. Iraq J Chem Pet Eng. 2010 September; 11(3): 15-22. https://doi.org/10.31699/IJCPE .

Saleh MA. Determination of antibody (IgG, IgM) against Toxoplasma gondi in some Iraqi individuals by using ELISA technique. Baghdad Sci J. 2011 December; 8(4): 940-946. https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2011.8.4.940-946 .

Borges LP , Martin AF , Santos de Melo M , Britode Oliveria MG , Neto JM , et al. Seroprevalence of SAES-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in an asymptomatic population in Sergipe Brazil. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2020 October; 4(6): e108. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2020.108 .

Kurono A, Arimura K, Watanabe O, Tomimitsu H, Nagado T, Sonoda Y, et al. IgM –containing fraction suppressed voltage – gated potassium channels in acquired neuromytonia. Acta Neurol Scand. 2006 March; 113(3):185-188. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2005.00569.x.