Mangrove Landscaping As An Adaptation Pattern To Reduce The Impact of Climate Change in Segara Anakan Lagoon, Cilacap Regency Indonesia

Main Article Content

Endang Hilmi
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2390-5596
Nurul Anwar
Imam Santosa
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4380-3746
Arif Mahdiana
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4953-9416
Taruna Mona Rachman
Teguh Wardoyo

Abstract

Mangrove landscaping in the Segara Anakan Lagoon (SAL) is an adaptation pattern of mangrove ecosystems to live and grow in unstable areas. This research aimed to develop a mangrove landscape to mitigate the impacts of ocean waves, currents, and inundation due to climate change. The study was conducted in SAL and Cilacap Coast (CC) using the environmental properties and climate change data. The data obtained were analyzed using mapping and trendline analyses. The results showed that mangrove landscaping in Segara Anakan had four zones with Nypa frutican, Rhizophora styllosa, Aegiceras corniculatum, Rhizophora apiculata, Avicennia marina, Sonneratia alba identified as the best adaptation of mangrove species. Climate change give a high impact on mangrove degradation (degradation 142.1 ha/year), the instability of rainfall intensity with average intensity 3552 mm/year, irregular wind direction with a speed average of 7 knots, and increasing of sea wave and sea level rise (range from 2.7 m to 3.4 m) The results conclude that the mangrove species have ability to live and grow, because the climate change does not affect mangrove growth (the correlation with rainfall intensity = -0,35, with wind speed = 0,18 and sea wave = - 0,34).

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Hilmi E, Anwar N, Santosa I, Mahdiana A, Rachman TM, Wardoyo T. Mangrove Landscaping As An Adaptation Pattern To Reduce The Impact of Climate Change in Segara Anakan Lagoon, Cilacap Regency Indonesia. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 1 [cited 2024 Feb. 22];21(2):0338. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/8828
Section
article

References

Hilmi E. Mangrove landscaping using the modulus of elasticity and rupture properties to reduce coastal disaster risk. Ocean Coast Manag. Elsevier; 2018; 165(1 November): 71–79. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.08.002

Wardoyo T. Trend Perubahan Curah Hujan terhadap perubahan Laguna dan Kesejahteraan Nelayan Kepiting di Laguna Segara Anakan Cilacap. Magister Ilmu Lingkungan Unsoed (Thesis); 2019 .

Hilmi E, Sari LK, Cahyo TN, Mahdiana A, Samudra SR. The affinity of mangrove species using Association and Cluster Index in North Coast of Jakarta and Segara Anakan of Cilacap , Indonesia. Biodivers J Biol Divers. 2021; 22(7): 2907–2918. https://dx.doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220743.

Fudge M, Ogier E, Alexander KA. Marine and coastal places: Wellbeing in a blue economy. Environ Sci Policy. Elsevier Ltd; 2023; 144: 64–73. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2023.03.002

de Almeida Duarte LF, de Souza CA, Pereira CDS, Pinheiro MAA. Metal toxicity assessment by sentinel species of mangroves: In situ case study integrating chemical and biomarkers analyses. Ecotoxicol Environ. Saf. Academic Press; 2017; 145: 367–376. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.ECOENV.2017.07.051

Zhang Z, Fang Z, Li J, Sui T, Lin L, Xu X. Copper, zinc, manganese, cadmium and chromium in crabs from the mangrove wetlands in Qi’ao Island, South China: Levels, bioaccumulation and dietary exposure. Watershed Ecol and Environ. Elsevier; 2019; 1: 26–32. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.WSEE.2019.09.001

Hilmi E, Pareng R, Vikaliana R, Kusmana C, Iskandar I, Sari LK, et al. The carbon conservation of mangrove ecosystem applied REDD program. Reg Stud Mar Sci. Elsevier B V. 2017; 16: 152–161. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2017.08.005

Koswara SD, Ardli ER, Yani E. The Monitoring of Mangrove Vegetation Community Structure In Segara Anakan Cilacap For The Period of 2009 And 2015. Scr Biol. 2017; 4: 113–118. https://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.sb.2017.4.2.414.

Azman MS, Sharma S, Shaharudin MAM, Hamzah ML, Adibah SN, Zakaria RM, et al. Stand structure, biomass and dynamics of naturally regenerated and restored mangroves in Malaysia. For. Ecol. Manag. Elsevier B V; 2021; 482: 118852. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118852

Datta D, Deb S. Forest structure and soil properties of mangrove ecosystems under different management scenarios: Experiences from the intensely humanized landscape of Indian Sunderbans. Ocean Coast Manag. Elsevier Ltd; 2017; 140: 22–33. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.02.022

Ulfa M, Ikejima K, Poedjirahajoe E, Faida LRW, Harahap MM. Effects of mangrove rehabilitation on density of Scylla spp. (mud crabs) in Kuala Langsa, Aceh, Indonesia. Reg Stud Mar Sci. Elsevier B V. 2018; 24: 296–302. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2018.09.005

Mohammed FO, Mohammad AO, Ibrahim HS, Hasan RA. Future scenario of global climate map change according to the Köppen - Geiger climate classification. Baghdad Sci J. 2021; 18(2): 1030–1037. https://dx.doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2021.18.2(Suppl.).1030.

Fazaa N A, Dunn JC, Whittingham MJ. Evaluation of the Ecosystem Services of the Central Marsh in Southern Iraq. Baghdad Sci J. 2018; 15(4): 369–380. https://dx.doi.org/10.21123/bsj.15.4.369-380.

Ding Q, Chen X, Hilborn R, Chen Y. Vulnerability to impacts of climate change on marine fi sheries and food security. Mar Policy. Elsevier Ltd; 2017; 83(January): 55–61. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.05.011.

Galappaththi EK, Ford JD, Bennett EM. A framework for assessing community adaptation to climate change in a fi sheries context. Environ Sci Policy. Elsevier; 2019; 92(November 2018): 17–26. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.11.005

Cinco-castro S, Herrera-silveira J. Vulnerability of mangrove ecosystems to climate change effects : The case of the Yucatan Peninsula. Ocean Coast Manag. Elsevier Ltd; 2020; 192 (March): 105196. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105196

Muluneh A. Impact of climate change on soil water balance , maize production , and potential adaptation measures in the Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia. J Arid Environ. Elsevier; 2021; 179: 104195. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2020.104195

Borras SM, Franco JC, Nam Z. Climate change and land : Insights from Myanmar. World Dev. 2020; 129: 104864. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104864

Islam M, Sallu S, Hubacek K, Paavola J. Limits and barriers to adaptation to climate variability and change in Bangladeshi coastal fishing communities. Mar Policy. Elsevier; 2014; 43: 208–216. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.06.007

Ojea E, Lester SE, Salgueiro-otero D. Adaptation of Fishing Communities to Climate-Driven Shifts in Target Species. One Earth. Elsevier Inc; 2020; 28–31. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2020.05.012

Rezaee S, Seiler C, Pelot R, Ghasemi A. Will commercial fi shing be a safe occupation in future ? A framework to quantify future fi shing risks due to climate change scenarios Projections Reporting of the Results. Weather Clim Extremes. Elsevier; 2016; 13: 73–85. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2016.08.002.

Aubin D, Riche C, Vande V, La I. The adaptive capacity of local water basin authorities to climate change : The Thau lagoon basin in France. Sci Total Environ . Elsevier B V; 2023; 651(2019): 2013–2023. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.078

Jakimavičius D, Kriaučiūnienė J, Šarauskienė D. Impact of climate change on the Curonian Lagoon water balance components, salinity and water temperature in the 21st century. Oceanologia . 2018; 162: 1–12. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceano.2018.02.003

Sukop MC, Rogers M, Guannel G, Infanti JM, Hagemann K. High temporal resolution modeling of the impact of rain , tides , and sea level rise on water table flooding in the Arch Creek basin , Miami-Dade County Florida USA. Sci Total Environ. Elsevier B V; 2017; 27–37. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.170

Truong SH, Ye Q, Stive MJF. Estuarine Mangrove Squeeze in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

J Coast Res. 2017; 33(4): 747–763. https://dx.doi.org/10.2112/jcoastres-d-16-00087.1

Bomer EJ, Wilson CA, Hale RP, Hossain ANM, Rahman FMA. Surface elevation and sedimentation dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain, Bangladesh: Evidence for mangrove adaptation to human-induced tidal amplification. Catena . Elsevier; 2020; 187(September): 104312. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2019.104312

Mukul SA, Alamgir M, Sohel SI, Pert PL, Herbohn J, Turton SM, et al. Combined effects of climate change and sea-level rise project dramatic habitat loss of the globally endangered Bengal tiger in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Sci Total Environ . Elsevier B V; 2019; 663: 830–840. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.383.

Joyce J, Chang N, Harji R, Ruppert T, Imen S. Environmental Modelling & Software Developing a multi-scale modeling system for resilience assessment of green-grey drainage infrastructures under climate change and sea level rise impact. Environ Model Softw . Elsevier Ltd; 2017; 90: 1–26. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.11.026

Hilmi E, Sari LK, Amron A, Cahyo TN, Siregar AS. Mangrove cluster as adaptation pattern of mangrove ecosystem in Segara Anakan Lagoon. IOP Conference Series: Earth Environ Sci . 2021; 746(1). https://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/746/1/012022

Bathmann J, Peters R, Reef R, Berger U, Walther M, Lovelock CE. Modelling mangrove forest structure and species composition over tidal inundation gradients: The feedback between plant water use and porewater salinity in an arid mangrove ecosystem. Agric For Meteorol. Elsevier B V; 2021; 308–309(June): 108547. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108547

Vinagre C, Madeira C, Dias M, Narciso L, Mendonça V. Reliance of coastal intertidal food webs on river input – Current and future perspectives. Ecol Indic. Elsevier; 2019; 101(January): 632–639. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.01.064

Garnier J, Ramarson A, Billen G, Théry S, Thiéry D, Thieu V, et al. Nutrient inputs and hydrology together determine biogeochemical status of the Loire River ( France ): Current situation and possible future scenarios. Sci Total Environ. Elsevier B V; 2018; 637–638: 609–624. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.045

Hilmi E, Sari LK, Cahyo TN, Amron A, Siregar AS. The Sedimentation Impact for the Lagoon and Mangrove Stabilization. E3S Web of Conferences. 2021; 324: 02001. https://dx.doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202132402001

Onat Y, Francis OP, Kim K. Vulnerability assessment and adaptation to sea level rise in high-wave environments : A case study on O’ahu, Hawai'i. Ocean Coast Manag. Elsevier; 2018; 157(February): 147–159. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.02.021

Pirhooshyaran M, Snyder L V. Forecasting , hindcasting and feature selection of ocean waves via recurrent and sequence-to-sequence networks. Ocean Eng. Elsevier Ltd; 2020; 207(February): 107424. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107424

Sari LK, Adrianto L, Soewardi K, Atmadipoera AS, Hilmi E. Sedimentation in lagoon waters (Case study on Segara Anakan Lagoon). AIP Conf Proce . 2016; 1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4947417

Ahmed S, Kamruzzaman M, Azad MS, Khan MNI. Fine root biomass and its contribution to the mangrove communities in three saline zones of Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Rhizosphere . Elsevier B V; 2021; 17: 100294. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rhisph.2020.100294

Hilmi E, Junaidi T, Mahdiana A, Dewi R. The Ecological Risk Assessment of Mercury Contamination in a Mangrove Ecosystem of the Segara Anakan Cilacap, Indonesia. Baghdad Sci J. 2023; 12–14. https://dx.doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2023.7455

Rachman TM, Hilmi E, Anwar N, Penelitian L. Keragaan Sosial Ekologi Dan Ekonomi Masyarakat Nelayan Di Pesisir Cilacap Selatan. Research of Empowerment and Development (READ). 2020; 1(1): 38–43. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.read.2020.1.1.2388

Cochard R. Coastal Water Pollution and its Potential Mitigation by Vegetated Wetlands: An Overview of Issues in Southeast Asia. Redefining Diversity and Dynamics of Natural Resources Management in Asia. Elsevier Inc; 2017. 189–230 p. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805454-3.00012-8

Pham LTH, Vo TQ, Dang TD, Nguyen UTN. Monitoring mangrove association changes in the Can Gio biosphere reserve and implications for management. Remote Sens Appl: Soc Environ . 2019; 13: 298–305. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rsase.2018.11.009.

Hilmi E, Sari LK, Cahyo TN, Kusmana C, Suhendang E. Carbon sequestration of MangroveEcosystem in Segara Anakan Lagoon, Indonesia. Biotropia. 2019; 26(3): 181–190.

Hilmi E, Amron A, Sari LK, Cahyo TN, Siregar AS. The Mangrove Landscape and Zonation following Soil Properties and Water Inundation Distribution in Segara Anakan Cilacap. J Manaj Hutan Trop . 2021; 27(3): 152–164. https://dx.doi.org/10.72226/jtfm.27.3.152

Bullock EL, Fagherazzi S, Nardin W, Vo-Luong P, Nguyen P, Woodcock CE. Temporal patterns in species zonation in a mangrove forest in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, using a time series of Landsat imagery. Cont Shelf Res. Elsevier Ltd; 2017; 147(September 2016): 144–154. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.07.007

Hilmi E, Amron A, Sari LK, Cahyo TN, Siregar AS. The Mangrove Landscape and Zonation following Soil Properties and Water Inundation Distribution in Segara Anakan Cilacap. J Manaj Hutan Trop . 2021; 27(3): 152–164. https://dx.doi.org/10.72226/jtfm.27.3.152

Pesce M, Critto A, Torresan S, Giubilato E, Santini M, Zirino A, et al. Science of the Total Environment Modelling climate change impacts on nutrients and primary production in coastal waters. Sci Total Environ. Elsevier B V; 2018; 628–629: 919–937. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.131

Wei Y, Yuanxi L, Yu L, Mingxiang X, Liping Z, Qiuliang D. environment of urban lakes. Ecohydrol. Hydrobiol. Elsevier B V; 2020; 12: 1–12. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecohyd.2020.06.006

Abdullah MM, Lee SY. Structure of mangrove meiofaunal assemblages associated with local sediment conditions in subtropical eastern australia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci. Elsevier Ltd; 2017; 198: 438–449. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.10.039.

Baloloy AB, Blanco AC, Raymund Rhommel RRC, Nadaoka K. Development and application of a new mangrove vegetation index (MVI) for rapid and accurate mangrove mapping. ISPRS ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens. 2020; 166 (Mvi): 95–117. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2020.06.001

Jhonnerie R, Siregar VP, Nababan B, Prasetyo LB, Wouthuyzen S. Random Forest Classification for Mangrove Land Cover Mapping Using Landsat 5 TM and Alos Palsar Imageries. Procedia Environ Sci. Elsevier B V. 2015; 24: 215–221. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.03.028

Ismail I, Sulistiono S, Hariyadi S, Madduppa H. Condition and mangrove density in Segara Anakan, Cilacap Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux. 2018; 11(4): 1055–1068.

Hartoyo AP, Sunkar A, Ramadani R, Faluthi S, Hidayati S. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis for vegetation cover in Leuser Ecosystem area, Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodivers J Bol Divers . 2021; 22(3): 1160–1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220311

Andini S, Prasetyo W, Sukmono A. Analisis Sebaran Vegetasi Dengan Citra Satelit Sentinel Menggunakan Metode NDVI Dan Segmentasi (Studi Kasus: Kabupaten Demak). J Geodesi. 2018; 7(1): 17–29.

Taufik A, Ahmad SS, Ahmad A. Classification of landsat 8 satellite data using NDVI thresholds. J Telecommun Electron Comput Eng. 2017; 8(4). 37-40.

Njana MA. Structure, growth, and sustainability of mangrove forests of mainland Tanzania. Glob Ecol Conserv. 2020: e 01394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01394

Chen ZJ, Tian W, Li YJ, Sun LN, Chen Y, Zhang H, et al. Responses of rhizosphere bacterial communities, their functions and their network interactions to Cd stress under phytostabilization by Miscanthus spp. Environ Pollut. Elsevier Ltd; 2021; 287(June): 117663. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117663

Khan MS, Abdullah S, Salam MA, Mandal TR, Hossain MR. Review assessment of biodiversity loss of sundarban forest: Highlights on causes and impacts. Indones J For Res. 2021; 8(1): 85–97. https://dx.doi.org/10.20886/IJFR.2021.8.1.85-97

Mapenzi LL, Shimba MJ, Moto EA, Maghembe RS, Mmochi AJ. Heavy metals bio-accumulation in tilapia and catfish species in Lake Rukwa ecosystem Tanzania.

J Geochem Explor . Elsevier B V; 2020; 208: 106413. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2019.106413

Chai M, Li R, Qiu Z, Niu Z, Shen X. Mercury distribution and transfer in sediment-mangrove system in urban mangroves of fast-developing coastal region, Southern China. Stuar Coast Shelf Sci. Academic Press; 2020; 106770. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.ECSS.2020.106770.

Pimple U, Leadprathom K, Simonetti D, Sitthi A, Peters R, Pungkul S, et al. Assessing mangrove species diversity, zonation and functional indicators in response to natural, regenerated, and rehabilitated succession. J Environ Manage. Academic Press; 2022; 318: 115507. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.JENVMAN.2022.115507

Kantharajan G, Pandey PK, Krishnan P, Ragavan P, Jeevamani JJJ, Purvaja R, et al. Vegetative structure and species composition of mangroves along the Mumbai coast, Maharashtra, India. Reg Stud Mar Sci. Elsevier B V 2018; 19: 1–8. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2018.02.011

Owuor MA, Mulwa R, Otieno P, Icely J, Newton A. Valuing mangrove biodiversity and ecosystem services: A deliberative choice experiment in Mida Creek, Kenya. Ecosyst Serv Elsevier B V; 2019; 40 (September): 101040. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2019.101040

Leo KL, Gillies CL, Fitzsimons JA, Hale LZ, Beck MW. Coastal habitat squeeze: A review of adaptation solutions for saltmarsh, mangrove and beach habitats. Ocean Coast Manag. Elsevier; 2019; 175: 180–190. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.OCECOAMAN.2019.03.019

Tamimi BM, Juliana WWA, Nizam MS, Zain CRCM. Temperature Stress on Physiological and Morphological Traits in Rhizophora apiculata. Baghdad Sci J. 2021; 18(4): 1492–1500. https://dx.doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2021.18.4(Suppl.).1492

Marois DE, Mitsch WJ. A mangrove creek restoration plan utilizing hydraulic modeling. Ecol Eng. Elsevier B V; 2017;108: 537–546. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.06.063

Latiefa H, Putria MR, Hanifaha F, Afifaha IN, Fadlia M, Ismoyo DO. Coastal Hazard Assessment in Northern part of Jakarta. Procedia Eng. Elsevier B V; 2018; 212: 1279–1286. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2018.01.165

Amare M, Jensen ND, Shiferaw B, Denno J. Rainfall shocks and agricultural productivity : Implication for rural household consumption. Agric Syst. Elsevier; 2018; 166(June): 79–89. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2018.07.014

Dai Z, Trettin CC, Frolking S, Birdsey RA. Mangrove carbon assessment tool: Model development and sensitivity analysis. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci. Elsevier Ltd; 2018; 208: 23–35. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2018.04.035

Wang Z, Li S, Yue F, Qin C, Bucker S. Rainfall driven nitrate transport in agricultural karst surface river system : Insight from high resolution hydrochemistry and nitrate isotopes. Agric Ecosyst Environ . 2020; 291. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2019.106787

Mastrocicco M, Colombani N, Soana E, Vincenzi F, Castaldelli G. Intense rainfalls trigger nitrite leaching in agricultural soils depleted in organic matter. Sci Total Environ. Elsevier B V; 2019; 665: 80–90. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.306

Jafari H, Sudegi A, Bagheri R. Contribution of rainfall and agricultural returns to groundwater recharge in arid areas. J Hydrol. Elsevier; 2019; 575 (March): 1230–1238. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.06.029

Yassen AN, Nam WH, Hong EM. Impact of climate change on reference evapotranspiration in Egypt. Catena . Elsevier; 2020; 194(May): 104711. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2020.104711

Cherry JA, Cherry JA. Tidal Wetlands in a Changing Climate : Introduction to a Special Feature. wetlands and Climate Change . Wetlands; 2020: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-019-01245-9

Saintilan N, Rogers K, Kelleway JJ, Ens E, Sloane DR. Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Wetlands of Australia. Wetland and Climate Change (Wetlands); 2018; 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-018-1016-7

Parker VT, Boyer KE. Sea-Level Rise and Climate Change Impacts on an Urbanized Pacific Coast Estuary. Wetlands . 2017; 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-017-0980-7

Tandio T, Kusmana C, Fauzi A, Hilmi E. Identification of Key Actors in Mangroves Plantation using the MACTOR Tool: Study in DKI Jakarta. J Sylva Lestari . 2023; 11(1): 163–176. https://dx.doi.org/10.23960/jsl.v11i1.593

Wardono B, Muhartono R, Hikmayani Y, Apriliani T, Hikmah H. Analisis Prospektif Peran Aktor Dalam Strategi Formulasi Pembangunan Perikanan Di Kabupaten Natuna. Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan (JSEKP). 2019; 14(2): 179. https://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jsekp.v14i2.8241

Chai M, Li R, Qiu Z, Niu Z, Shen X. Mercury distribution and transfer in sediment-mangrove system in urban mangroves of fast-developing coastal region, Southern China. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci. Elsevier Ltd; 2020;240 (April): 106770. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2020.106770.