Estimating Apelin_36 Level in Obese and Non-obese Patients with Type2 Diabetes Mellitus


  • Maryam Moayd mohammed Department of Chemistry, College of Science for women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Fayhaa M. Khaleel Department of Chemistry, College of Science for women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.



Adipose tissue, Apelin-36, Body mass Index (BMI), Lipid profile, Type2 Diabetes (T2D).


Risk factors for cardiovascular disease include obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate Apelin-36 levels in Type2 diabetic(obese and non-obese) Iraqi patients ,finding out whether Apelin-36 is a future indicator of cardiovascular disease, and is an indicator of obesity or diabetes, or an indicator of both diseases ,when compared to obese control subjects without diabetes This study included 120 subjects:30 obese Diabetic type2 patients, 30 non-obese Diabetic Type2,60 as obese control group, adults between the ages from 30 to 65 years .The participants' FBS, lipid profile (Cho ,Tri, HDL, LDL,and VLDL),HbA1C, Apelin-36 level, BMI , and waist-to-hip ratio were evaluated. Apelin-36 levels were significantly higher in obese Type 2 patients (27.68±0.67) than in non-obese patients (18.08±0.96) and obese control without diabetes individuals (10.23±0.29) (P<0.05). In comparison to obese type2 diabetic patients, obese control group ,non-obese type2 patients the BMI  increased (p<0.05) (35.191±0.88, 32.05±0.35, 26.53±0.47). The mean values of Cho, tri, HDL, and VIDI do not differ significantly from those of the control groups. There is a significant difference in LDL levels between the obese patients and controls in the study's participants (p<0.05).(Area Under the Curve) in the study = 0.980, indicating a perfect ROC test for correctly identifying individuals .Higher levels of Apelin-36 play an important role, which increases directly with obesity, resulting in an increase in the secretion of adipokines (Apelin-36) in the blood. Increasing BMI, lipid levels, and duration of the disease also contribute to the development of diabetes complications.


Wysocka MB, Pietraszek-Gremplewicz K, Nowak D. The role of apelin in cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer. Front Physiol. 2018; 9: 557 . .

Cheng J, Luo X, Huang Z, Chen L. Apelin/APJ system: A potential therapeutic target for endothelial dysfunction‐related diseases .J Physiol Rev. 2019 Aug; 234(8): 12149-60. .

He Q, Wang Y, Yang H, Wang J, Zhang J, Liu D. Apelin 36 protects against lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury by inhibiting the ASK1/MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2021; 23(1): 1-. .

Schinner S, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR, Barthel A. Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance. Diabet Med. 2005; 22(6): 674-82. .

Galon-Tilleman H, Yang H, Bednarek MA, Spurlock SM, Paavola KJ, Ko B, et al . Apelin-36 modulates blood glucose and body weight independently of canonical APJ receptor signaling. J Biol Chem.. 2017; 292(5): 1925-33. .

Ali SE, Khaleel FM, Ali FE. A study of apelin-36 and GST levels with their relationship to lipid and other biochemical parameters in the prediction of heart diseases in PCOS women patients. Baghdad Sci J.. 2020; 17(3): 0924-. .

Jaid HK, Khaleel FM, Salman IN, Abd BA. Estimation of Apelin Levels in Iraqi Patients with Type II Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. Baghdad Sci J. 2023. .

Cheong LY, Xu A. Intercellular and inter-organ crosstalk in browning of white adipose tissue: molecular mechanism and therapeutic complications. Mol Biol Cell. 2021; 13(7): 466-79. .

Blüher M. Obesity: global epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019; 15(5): 288-98. .

Sitar-Taut AV, Coste SC, Tarmure S, Orasan OH, Fodor A, Negrean V, et al. Diabetes and obesity—Cumulative or complementary effects on adipokines, inflammation, and insulin resistance. J Clin Med. 2020; 9(9): 2767. 10.1161/01.ATV.0000198392.05307.aa .

Mittal B. Subcutaneous adipose tissue & visceral adipose tissue. Indian Med. Gaz . 2019 May; 149(5): 571.

Abed BA, Hamid GS. Evaluation of Lipocalin-2 and Vaspin Levels in In Iraqi Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Iraqi J Sci. 2022; 63 (11): 4650-4658.

Cypess AM. Reassessing human adipose tissue. N Engl J Med. 2022 Feb 24; 386(8): 768-79.

Piché ME, Tchernof A, Després JP. Obesity phenotypes, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Circ Res.. 2020; 126(11): 1477-500. .

Khursheed R, Singh SK, Wadhwa S, Kapoor B, Gulati M, Kumar R, et al. Treatment strategies against diabetes: Success so far and challenges ahead. European J Psychopharmacol. 2019; 862: 172625. .

Padhi S, Nayak AK, Behera A. Type II diabetes mellitus: a review on recent drug based therapeutics. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020; 131: 110708. .

Artasensi A, Pedretti A, Vistoli G, Fumagalli L. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of multi-target drugs. Molecules. 2020; 25(8): 1987.

Escrivá-Martínez T, Galiana L, Rodríguez-Arias M, Baños RM. The binge eating scale: Structural equation competitive models, invariance measurement between sexes, and relationships with food addiction, impulsivity, binge drinking, and body mass index. Front Psychol. 2019; 10: 530.

Motamed N, Perumal D, Zamani F, Ashrafi H, Haghjoo M, Saeedian FS, et al. Conicity index and waist‐to‐hip ratio are superior obesity indices in predicting 10‐year cardiovascular risk among men and women. Clin Cardiol. 2015; 38(9): 527-34 . .

Abdulahi AM, Aguade AE, Yohannis HK. .Longitudinal modeling of fasting blood sugar variation over time among adult diabetic patients in case of Adama hospital medical college, Health Sci Rep 2022; 5(6): e951. .

Fasil A, Biadgo B, Abebe M. Glycemic control and diabetes complications among diabetes mellitus patients attending at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes: Targets Ther. 2022: 75-83. .

Weykamp C. HbA1c: a review of analytical and clinical aspects. Ann Lab Med.. 2013; 33(6): 393. .

Butler AE, English E, Kilpatrick ES, Östlundh L, Chemaitelly HS, Abu-Raddad LJ, et al . Diagnosing type 2 diabetes using Hemoglobin A1c: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic cutpoint based on microvascular complications. Acta Diabetol. 2021; 58: 279-300. .

Zayr FH, Mohammed HA, Jasim AH, Salih MZ. Study of glycated hemoglobin (Hba1c) in obese diabetics patients and non obese diabetics patients. world. 2016; 13: 15 . .

Sherwani SI, Khan HA, Ekhzaimy A, Masood A, Sakharkar MK. Significance of HbA1c test in diagnosis and prognosis of diabetic patients. Biomark Insights. 2016 Jan; 11: 95–104.

Zhang Y, Yang J, Ye J, Guo Q, Wang W, Sun Y. Separate and combined associations of physical activity and obesity with lipid-related indices in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Lipids Health Dis. 2019; 18: 1-9.

Fonseca VA, Rosenstock J, Wang AC, Truitt KE, Jones MR. Colesevelam HCl improves glycemic control and reduces LDL cholesterol in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on sulfonylurea-based therapy. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31(8): 1479-84. .

Chapman MJ, Ginsberg HN, Amarenco P, Andreotti F, Borén J, Catapano AL,. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management. Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2011; 32(11): 1345-61. .

Jang SH, Paik IY, Ryu JH, Lee TH, Kim DE. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercises on circulating apelin-12 and apelin-36 concentrations in obese middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial. BMC women's health. 2019; 19(1): 1-8.

Castan-Laurell I, Dray C, Valet P. The therapeutic potentials of apelin in obesity-associated diseases. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2021; 529: 111278. .

Prasad K. Does HbA1cc play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases?. Curr Pharm Des. 2018; 24(24): 2876-82. .

Adel SM, Seyedian M, Nourizadeh M. The relationship between HbA1c and cardiovascular events in diabetic patients with coronary angioplasty: A cross-sectional study. J Family Med Prim Care. 2022; 11(2): 772–774.

Salman EM, Hasan BF. The effect of obesity and Insulin Resistance on Liver Enzymes in Type2 Diabetes Mellitus. Baghdad Sci J. 2015; 12(3): 536-45. .

Al-Attaby AK, Al-Lami MQ. Effects of duration and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus on diabetic related parameters, adipocytokines and calcium regulating hormones. Iraqi J Sci.. 2019; 11: 2335-2316 .

Lee S, Liu T, Zhou J, Zhang Q, Wong WT, Tse G. Predictions of diabetes complications and mortality using hba1c variability: a 10-year observational cohort study. Acta Diabetol . 2021; 58: 171-80.





How to Cite

Estimating Apelin_36 Level in Obese and Non-obese Patients with Type2 Diabetes Mellitus. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2024 Jul. 22];22(1). Available from: